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APES Review 2

2nd set of words

What's R Strategist? Reprodce early, many small unprotected offspring.
What's K Strategist? Reproduce late, few, cared for offspring.
What's Natural Selection? Organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation.
What's Malthus? Said humanpopulation cannot continue to increase...consequences will be war, famine & dsease
What's Dubling Time? Rule of 70 70 divided by te percent growth rate.
What's Replacing Level Fertility? The number of children a couple must have to replace themselves(2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
What's World Population? Over 6 billion.
What's Preindustrial Stage? Birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high.
What's Transition Stage? Death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast.
What's Indstrial Stage? Decline in birth rate, population growth slows.
What's Postindustrial Stage? low birth & death rates.
What's Age Structure Diagrams? (broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negative growth)(uniform shape, zero growth)
What's 1st & 2nd Most Populated Countries? China & India
What's the ost Important Thing Affecting Population Growth? Low status of women.
What's Ways to Decrease Birth Rate? Family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties.
What's Percent water on Earth by Type? 97.5% seawater, 2.5% freshwater
What's Salinazationof Soil? In arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind.
What's Ways to Conserve Water? (Agriculture, drip/trickle irigaion)(industry, recycling)(home, use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures)
What's Point vs Non-Point Source? Point: from specific location such as pipeNon-pint: from over an area such as runoff.
What's BOD? Biological oxygen demand, amount of disolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials.
What's Eutrophication? Rapid algal growth aused by an excess of N&P
What's Hypoxia? When aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO dros & the water onnot support life.
What's Minamata Disease? Mental impairments caused by mercury.
What's Primary Air Pollutants? Poduced by humans & nature ( CO, CO2, So2, NO, hydrcarbons, particulaes)
What's Secondary Pollutants Formed by reaction of primary pollutants.
What's Particulate Matter(Source, Effect, Reduction)? (Buring fossil fuels & car exhaust)(Reduces visibility & resiratory irritation)(filtering, electrostatic precipitators alternative energy)
What's Nitrogen Oxides? (Source: auto exaust) (Effects: acidification of laks, respirator irritation, leas to smog & zone)(Equaton for acid formation: NO+O2=NO2=H2)=HNO3)(Reduction: catalytic converter)
What's Sulfur Oxides? (Soure: coal burning)(Effects: acid deposition,espiratory irriation, demages plants)(Equation for acid formation: SO+O2=SO3+H2O=H2SO4)(Reduction: scrubbers,burn low sulfur fuel)
What's Carbon Oxides? (Source: auto exhaust incomplete combustion)(Effects: CO binds to hemoglobin reducing bloods abiity to carry O, CO2 contributes to global warming)(REducion: Cataltic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit)
What's Ozone? (Formation: secondary pollutant, NO=UV=NO+OO+O2=O3, with VOC's)(Effects: respiatory irritans, plants damage)(Reduction: Reduce NO Emissions & VOC's)
What's Indusrial Smog? Found in cities that burn large amounts of coal.
What's Acid Deposition? Caued by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters.
What's Greenhouse gases? (Ex. H2o, CO2, O3, methane(CH4), CFC's)(EFFECT: they trap outgoing infrared (heat) energy causing earth to warm up)
What's Ozone Depletion Caused By? CFC's, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone.
What's Effect of Ozone Depletion? Inceased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth.
What's Love Canal, NY? Chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing bith defects & cancer.
What's Most Municipal SOLID Waste? Paper
What's Most municipal waste? Landfilled
What's Sanitary Landfill Problems and Solutions? (leachate, liner with collection system)(methane gas, collect gas and burn)(volume of garbage, compact & reduce)
What's Incineration Advantages? Volume of waste reduced by 90% & waste heat can be used.
What's Incineration Disadvantages? toxic emisssions polyvinyl cloride--dioxin), scrubbers & electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal
What's Best Way to Solve Waste Problems? Reduce the amounts of waste at the source
What's Keystone Species? Species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others
What's Indicator Species? Species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged.
What's Most Endangered Species? Have a small range, require large territory or live on an island.
Who Keeps in Controls 50-90% of Pest Species in the Natural World? Predators, diseases, parasites
What's Major Insecticide Groups and Examples? (Chlorinted hydrocarbons, DDT)(Organophosphates, malathion)(Carbamates aldicarb)
What's Pesticide Pros? Saves lives from insect trasmitted diseases, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers.
Created by: Ch4v3z