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Standard 3 Vocab

Standard 3 Vocabulary Words

Meiosis A process in which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells.
Phenotype An organism's physical appearance or physical traits.
Variation Differences
Trait A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Cloning When a new organism is created that has the exact copy of another organism's genes.
Sperm The male sex cell.
Asexual reproduction A type of reproduction that involves only one parent. The offspring are identical to the parent.
True-breeding Sometimes called a purebred, it is an organism that always passes down certain phenotypic traits to its offspring.
Genotype An organism's genetic makeup or allele combination.
Egg The female sex cell.
Gene One set of instructions for an inherited trait.
External fertilization A type of fertilization that happens outside the body.
Heredity The passing of genetic traits from parents to offspring.
Sexual reproduction A type of reproduction that involves two parents. The offspring will get half their DNA from the father and half from the mother.
Dominant A gene that covers up or dominates the recessive gene.
Selective breeding A type of breeding where you select two organisms to mate together to produce a specific offspring.
Punnett Square A chart that shows all of the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
Uterus A female reproductive organ where an embryo will develop.
Probability The likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event.
Chromosome A double rod of chromatin found in the nucleus, 46 in total.
RNA Ribonucleic acid is a molecule similar to DNA. Unlike DNA, it is single stranded.
DNA A molecule in all living cells that contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live.
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a trait.
Mutation A change in a gene or chromosomes.
Internal fertilization A type of fertilization that happens inside of the body.
Recessive A gene that is covered up or hidden by the dominant trait.
Pedigree A chart that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait.
Allele Different forms of the same gene.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a trait.
Nucleotide A structural component or building bloc of DNA.