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Anatomy - Histology

Anatomy Exam 1

cell theory cells are the fundamental unit of life, all organisms are made of >1 cell, all cells come from existing cells
a cell contains... (4 things) cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, extracellular fluid
cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer (phosphate is hydrophilic, lipids are hydrophobic), allows for communication with other cells and the external environment.
things that can easily pass through cell membrane nonpolar molecules, smaller molecules, gases
Passive Transport does not require ATP
2 types of Passive Transport Simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion
Simple diffusion going from high concentration to low concentration
facilitated diffusion going from high concentration to low concentration with the help of a protein channel.
active transport requires ATP because going against the concentration gradient
2 types of Active Transport Exocytosis and Endocytosis
exocytosis moving things out of the cell
endocytosis moving things into the cell via a vesicle
cytoskeleton network of protein filaments in the cytoplasm
3 components of a cytoskeleton microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments
microtubules largest component of cytoskeleton, serves as the monorail for the cell
intermediate filaments most durable component of cytoskeleton, keratin
microfilaments smallest component of cytoskeleton, actin
mitochondria synthesizes ATP, powerhouse of cell
endoplasmic reticulum flattened membrane sacs
smooth endoplasmic reticulum lipid synthesis and storage
rough endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes which make proteins
Golgi apparatus packages proteins in secretory vesicles
Lysosomes digest waste removal of cell products, breaks down materials in the cell
peroxisomes breaks down fatty acids in cell
histology the study of tissue
3 basic components of tissue specialized cells, extracellular protein fibers, ground substance
4 types of tissue epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
epithelial tissue functions covers surfaces, lines cavities, forms glands, produces secretions, is avascular
3 shapes of epithelial tissue squamous, cuboidal, columnar
tight cell junction holds cells right next to each other creating a water-tight seal
gap cell junction forms a tube that connects cells, allows for fast intercellular communication
desmosomes and hemidesmosomes cell junction fibers on each cell that hold two cells together, resists mechanical stresses
exocrine glands epithelial glands, secretes product into a duct that then exits into a surface of the body (ex. salivary, mucous)
endocrene glands epithelial glands, secretes product inside the body, is ductless (ex. testes, ovaries)
3 types of secretion processes merocrine secretion, apocrine secretion, holocrine secretion
merocrine secretion most common, cells produce product and its packaged into vessels, the vessels merge w/ membrane and are released into a duct (lumen)
apocrine secretion taking apical end of the cell and budding it off
holocrine secretion the cell products a substance until the whole cell bursts, dies, and then replace from below
connective tissue function structural framework for organs, supports and protects bones and skeleton, usually few cells and much ECM
3 types of fibers secreted by cells of CT proper collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers (resist forces in multiple directions)
loose ct proper types (3) areolar, adipose, reticular
dense ct proper types (3) dense regular, dense irregular, elastic
fluid CT types (2) blood, lymph
Supportive CT types (2) compact bone, cartilage
muscle tissue types (3) skeletal, cardiac, smooth
neural tissue type (1) brane
4 types of tissue membranes mucous membrane, serosa membrane, cutaneous membrane, synovial membrane
mucous membrane moist, lines surfaces open to the exterior, protects and catches particles in air and doesn't let them into our system
serosa membrane double layer, lines interior body cavities, surrounds and lubricates organs
cutaneous membrane dry, covers exterior surface (skin)
synovial membrane moist, lines joint cavities, secretes lubricating fluid
Integumentary system components (3) epidermis, dermis, accessory structures (glands, hair, nails)
epidermis layers from superficial to deepest stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
connects the dermis and epidermis together (2) dermal ridges and papillae
dermis layers papillary layer, reticular layer
papillary layer in the dermis, source of nutrients for epidermis, areolar ct
reticular layer in the dermis, glands, hair follicles, lymph vessels
stratum corneum carotene storage
stratum granulosum granuoles contain a lipid based substance that helps produce a water proofing for our skin
melanocytes gives various shades of brown, made in stratum basal, all skin tones have the same number of melanocytes
carotene mostly in stratum corneum, can turn skin an organ-yellow color
circulation blood vessels open up and allow blood to flow in, blushing, bluing, blanching
hypodermis nicknames aka subcutaneous layer/superficial layer
hypodermis not part of integumentary system, binds skin to underlying tissue
arrector pilli muscles smooth muscles that pull on the sebaceous gland and squirt oil onto the hair
sebaceous glands epidermal gland, oil, become active at puberty, produce sebum, use holocrine secretion
sweat glands (2) eccrine gland: athletic perspiration, merocrine secretion apocrine gland: puberty, armpits, nipples, function is to attract mates
mammory glands produce milk, apocrine secretion
ceruminous glands produce ear wax, apocrone secretion
Created by: loladell