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# Science MS Praxis 2

### Physical Science

Straight line motion when the movement of an object is in a straight line, whether or not acceleration is constant
Circular motion continuous acceleration aka centripetal acceleration
projectile motion curved path an object takes. initially goes straight but as gravity comes into play the object will curve towards the ground.
periodic motion when an object has constraints on its motion it moves back and forth, such as a pendulum
Newton's Laws of Motion #1 an object at rest or in motion will remain at rest or in motion until acted upon by an outside force. part 2 states that an object moving at a particular velocity will continue at that speed until acted upon by an outside force.
Newton's Laws of Motion #2 the acceleration of an object depends on the mass and amount of force applied.
Weight gravitiational force on an object
mass amount of matter an object is composed of
work action caused by force acting upon an object
energy ability to do work
power rate at which work is completed
friction is the opposing force between 2 surfaces. this causes objects in motion to slow down
lever applying force to loads; simple machine
inclined place requires smaller force; simple machine
wedge output force in greater than input force; simple machine
simple machine examples screw, wheel and axle and pulley
torque force that rotates things such as a wrench
Linear Momentum is defined as the mass of an object times its velocity. it is the tendency of an object moving in a certain direction to keep going at the same speed in the same direction
conservation of momentum no net external force acting on a system of particles, total momentum of the system is force acting on system of particles the total momentum of the system is conserved basically no matter the nature of interaction its total momentum will remain same
conservation of energy the amount of energy remains constant and energy is neither created nor destroyed
angular momentum objects moving around a fixing point, the smaller the circle the faster the spin. torque is the turning or rotating of an object, this theory works for it as well
gravity attraction of 2 objects based on their masses. all matter has this, more the matter the greater pull
Pascal's principle for fluids a change in the pressure in a closed fluid will be equally distributed to all parts of the fluid. this applies to hydraulics.
Archimedes' principle Buoyancy The buoyant force of an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid it displaces an object will sink if it weighs more than the water it displaces, it will float if it weighs less than the water it displaces
Bernoulli principle for fluids as the speed of fluid increases, its pressure decreases this principle allows for airplanes to achieve lift
Why is air considered a fluid? has a high percentage of water vapor
Repulsion of electric charges same charges repel; magnets. ex. + and + or - and -
Attraction of electric charges different charges attract; magnets. + and -
Resistance the opposition to the flow of electric charges
Ohm's Law the law that states the relationship between current voltage and resistance
Electromotive Force the difference between electric potential and actual usage
Potential difference the difference in an electrical charge as it moves from one point to another
Capacitance the number of electrons a compositor can hold
Current continuous flow of charge through a circuit caused
Ohm's Law Parallel Circuits voltage is constant while the "current drop" across each parallel leg differs, due to the load of that leg
Current Formula V/R = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3 V = VOLTAGE R = RESISTANCE
Resistance Formula 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
Ohm's Law of Series Circuit R = Resistance V = Voltage I = Current V = I x R I = V/R R = V/I
Series Circuit all parts are connected in a single loop in a closed circuit. when one item is removed from the circuit the entire circuit fails to work.
Parallel Circuit different branches connect back to the energy source. items wired in a parallel circuit are not dependent of the other loads in the circuit.
Conductor a material through which electricity flows easily
insulator a material that does not allow electricity to pass through
direct current (DC) typically from batteries and applies a straight flow of current only in one direction from the source of energy. *Limited in nature (such as a battery)
alternating current (AC) current that we have in our homes. current flows or alternates in directional force. *can usually supply an endless supply
batteries come in 2 forms, wet cells and dry cells, but utilize chemicals to create and maintain a charge
photo cells contain silicon atoms as light shines on the cells, electrons are ejected and sent along the wire connected to the cell. this will occur as long as light shines on the cell
generators converts kinetic energy into usable electrical energy, typically with a motor (electromagnetic source
Magnets have north and south poles,opposite poles attract and like poles repel each other
Magnetic fields are created surrounding electric currents
Magnetic forces can be create electricity such as in a generator
Step-Up Transformers transformers use by electrical plants that increase the voltage but lower amps to allow for electricity to travel over great distances to end consumers
Step-Down Transformers these transformers lower the amount of voltage but increase the amps coming into a home so that it is in a usable form. typically the transformers on poles behind your houses would be a step down
motors changes electrical energy into kinetic energy
amplitude the height of the wave from it's rest position, effects the loudness of a sound wave
wave speed the wavelength x frequency of a wave
wavelength the distance from 2 crests troughs or other chosen spot on waves
frequency the amount of waves in a given period of time effects the pitch of a sound wave
transverse waves do not require a medium, travel perpendicular to the source of their energy, highest part is the crest and the lowest part is th trough
longitudinal waves need a medium to travel, travel like slinky, area of compactions called a compression and the area of the wave which is stretched apart is called the rarefaction
reflection the bouncing back of a wave off of a smooth surface can be any type of wave in light an example would be seeing yourself in a mirror
refraction the bending of a wave as it travels from one medium to another
absorption when particles through which the wave travels absord some of the energy of the wave
transmission passing of light through matter
scattering the release of energy that has been absorbed by particles as a wave has passed
superposition 2 or more waves interact without changing their amplitude
diffraction when waves bend around or through a barrier. this is the reason we can hear around corners
interference when 2 or more waves interact with one another.
constructive interference the crests of 2 waves combined to amplify the constructive interference the crests of 2 waves combined to amplify the wave. when the crest of one and the trough of another wave overlap, destructive interference occurs and lowers the amplitude
Doppler Effect when the wave speeds increase the pitch of a sound wave gets higher. also utilized by weather forecasters to determine the direction of storms
Doppler Effect Examples a vehicle with a siren comes towards a person the waves are getting to the person increasingly faster. this causes a higher pitch to be heard. once the vehicle has passed & the waves are reaching the person at a slower rate the pitch of the sound lowers
Polarization these light waves only travel in one specific direction, they are great for sunglasses as they can allow you to see fish and other items in the water that would normally be reflected or refracted away from your eye sight
pitch the frequency of a wave the higher the higher the pitch
loudness the amount of amplitude the higher the amplitude the louder the sound
speed combination of the frequency and wavelength of a wave
microwaves radio waves with the shortest wavelengths, used in microwave ovens and to transmit cellular telephone messages
infrared waves provides heat energy such as that in you toaster
visible light waves the part of the spectrum that you can see
ultraviolet waves too short to see, but help to produce vitamin D, can cause cancer
x-rays pass through the body and are adsorbed by dense tissues will leave an image on the film to determine bone breaks etc.
gamma rays used to diagnose and treat cancer
Electromagnetic Specturm (Longers wave to shortest/lowest frequency to highest) radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light (ROYGBIV) ultra violet, x rays, gamma rays
periodicity the similarity between the properties of chemical elements that are grouped together on the periodic table families in columns across the table and periods going down the rows left side contains metals far right are the gasses organized by atomic weight
Alkali Metals Group (Columns) 1 H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Alkali Earth Metals Group 2 Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
Group 12 Transition Elements Group 3 Largest group starts with Sc to Cu and down
Boron Family Group 13 B, Al, Ga, In, Tl
Carbon Family Group 14 C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb
Nitrogen Family Group 15 N, P, As, Sb, Bi
Oxygen Family Group 16 O, S, Se, Te, Po
Halogens Most reactive non metals Group 17 H, F, Cl, Br, I, At
Noble Gases Group 18 He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Mole weight of an element 1 mole = the atomic weight of an element
Systematic nomenclature of inorganic compounds positive ion is listed first
cation positive ion
nomenclature of simple organic compounds 1) a base indication the ring of carbon atoms found in the molecular structure 2) a suffix designating other groups that may be present in the compound 3) names of substituent groups other than hydrogen that complete the molecular structure
ionic bonds bond between 2 oppositely charged ions
covalent bound bond between the shared electrons of an atom and the nuclei of the atoms
metallic bonds attraction between positive charged metal ion and electrons in a metal
chemical bond the bonding of 2 atoms
hydrogen bond water formation, positive ions attracted to other molecules
Electron dot and structural formulas show the valence electrons of an atom and are useful in demonstrating how bonding might transpire in atoms
Molecular Theory States matter's composed of molecules of atoms the space that the molecules occupy (volume) is derived from the space in between the molecules & not the space the molecules contain themselves molecules are in constant motion
condensation gas to liquid
freezing liquid to a solid
evaporation liquid into gas at less than a boiling point
melting solid to a liquid
vaporization liquid to gas at boiling point
sublimation solid straight to a gas
temperature of a gas as temp increases, the volume of gas will increase and vice versa
pressure of a gas as pressure increases volume decreases
number of molecules of a gas the # of molecules remains the same
Chemical Reactions when one or more substance changes to produce a different substance. Cles to this can be formation of gas, sold formation, color change, energy change and smell. Ex: Enzymes breaking down food, rusting
Exothermic energy that is released or removed from the chemical reaction
Endothermic that energy is absorbed during the reaction
Temperature increases as the reaction does
concentration as this increases there is more reactant and the rate of reactions increases
surface area this more exposed area, this increases the rate of reaction
catalysis substance that speeds up the reactions
inhibitor a substance that stops the chemical reactions
reasons for electrochemistry use of chemicals to create electricity such as in wet and dry cell batteries
solution a mixture of 2 or more substances, can be a solid such as steel, liquid, such as soft drinks or even gas. air can also be this. Mix of solvent and solute
solute the lesser of the substance (is being added to the solvent)what is being dissolved
solvent dissolving the solute, greater of the two in a solution, water and alcohols are some examples
concentration measure of the amount of solute is a solvent solute/solvent
suspension particles are through the liquid but settle when left alone over time, the particles are large
colloids dispersed through but not heavy enough particles to settle out, particles can be seen
solvents can be... water, inorganic and organic solvents, including oxygenated (alcohols and ketones) hydrocabron solvents (aliphates and aromatics) and chlorianted solvents
solubility the amount of solute needed to saturate a solution
3 ways to speed up solubility of a solute solute, heating, mixing and crushing the substance
solubility in gas as temperature rises, it lowers the ability to hold the solute and so it decreases. you will need to lower the temperature to increase this
solubility in liquid raise the temperature to raise solubility
acids increase the number of hydrogen ions (H+) tastes sour and can change color, there are corrosive, turns blue litmus paper red.
bases increases the number of hydroxide ions (OH-) tastes bitter, feel s slippery and can change colors turns red litmus paper blue
Ph level Acid (Ph 1)to Base (Ph 13) 1. hydrochloric acid 2. lemon juice 3. soft drinks 4. tomatoes 5. black coffee 6. milk 7. (neutral) human saliva/tap water 8. sea water 9. baking soda 10. milk of magnesia 11. detergents 12. ammonia 13. oven cleaner
salts have a positive electrical charge and replace hydrogen ions with metallic ions, in other words a positive ion from a base and a negative ion of an acid combine
Created by: scandisandi