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Spinal Anatomy - PCC

First lecture exam - Spinal

Bone as connective tissue Matrix composed of collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite ground substance
What is the role of collagen? Gives strength under tensile forces
What is hydroxyapetite? Inorganic mineral substance, giving strength under compressive forces
Bone as the organ Composed primarily of bony connective tissue plus other types of connective tissue as well as nervous and epithelial elements.
Functions of the skeletal system 1. Provides structure, support and protection 2. Locomotion 3. Blood formation 4. Storehouse for some inorganic minerals (Ca) 5. Forensic purposes
Classification of bones by shape 1. Long bones 2. Short bones 3. Flat bones 4. Irregular bones 5. Pneumatic bones 6. Accessory bones 7. Sesamoid bones 8. Accessory bones 9. Heterotopic bones
Classification by location 1. Axial 2. Appendicular
Axial skeleton 1. Skull 2. Hyoid 3. Vertebral 4. Sternum 5. Ribs
Skull 28 bones; Neurocramium (8) Facial skeleton (14) Auditory ossicles (6)
Hyoid bone 1 bone
Vertebral column 26 bones; Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic (12) Lumbar (5) Sacrum (1) Coccyx (1)
Sternum 1 bone
Ribs 24 bones
Appendicular skeleton 1. Shoulder 2. Upper extremity 3. Hip 4. Lower extremity
Shoulder 4 bones: scapula + clavicle
Upper extremity 30 bones on each side; arm (1) forearm (2) hand (27)
Hand Wrist = carpus (8) Palm = metecarpals (5) Fingers = phalanges (14)
Hip 1 bone
Lower extremity Thigh (1) Leg (3) Foot (26) Toes = phalanges (14)
Diaphysis Bone shaft: primary center of ossification
Epiphysis Often associated with the area of articulation with another bone: secondary site of ossification
Epiphyseal plate aka Disk. Separating the diaphysis and epiphysis, composed of hyaline cartilage
Periosteum and endosteum Membranes covering outer and inner bone surfaces
Articular cartilage Covering the bone where it articulates with other bones; composed of hyaline cartilage
Surface features 1. Elevations 2. Indentations 3. Facets
Elevations 1. Linear (line, ridge, crest) 2. Rounded (tubercle, protuberance, tuberosity, trochanter, malleolus) 3. Projection (spine, process)
Indentations 1. Depressions (groove, sulcus, fossa, fovea, cavity) 2. Passageway (fora,em, canal meatus)
Facets Flattened, smooth surfaces for bone articulation
Types of mature bone tissue 1. Spongy 2. Compact 3. Subcondral
Compact bone Bone composed of osteons (aka Haversian systems), Lamellae, Central canal, Lacunae, Canaliculi, Perforating canals
Lamellae Concentric rings of bony connective tissue
Central Canal In the middle of the osteon, vascular and innervated
Lacunae Holes found between lamellae
Canaliculi Connecting lacunae to each other and to the central canal
Perforating canals Connecting central canals to each other
Subchondral bone Found underlying articular cartilage, making up the facet surface
Osteoblast Lays down new bone
Osteocytes Found resting within the lacunae, maintain surrounded bone tissue and regulates mineral content
Osteoclasts Bone destroying cells (large and multinucleated)
Wolf's law Bone remodels according to the way force is transmitted through it; bone architecture reflects its function
Intramembranous bone aka Dermal. Skull bones + clavicle
Endochondral bones aka Catilaginous. Bones of skull base + all postcranial bones + parts of the clavicle
Ontogenic process in endochondral bone 1. Cartilaginous model forms (hylaine cartilage) 2. Cartilage disintergrates and excavates interior of the bone 3. Connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts, which starts forming spongy bone 4. Periosteum forms
5. Further growth takes place in both directions
How does bone growth happen? 1. Between the diaphysis and epiphysis 2. Increase in overall size
Interstitial growth Bone growth between the diaphysis and epiphysis
Appositional growth Overall increase in the size of the bone
Describe interstitial growth 1. Blood vessels invade ends of the bone which becomes the secondary center of ossification 2. Epiphyseal plate: zone of cartilage remaining between primary and secondary ossification centers
Describe appositional growth New compact bone deposited by osteoblasts just below the periosteum. The osteoclasts at the inner bone surface destroy bon and enlarge the medullary cavity.
Ontogenetic process in intramembranous bone 1. Membrane forms around blood vessel 2. Undifferentiated connective tissue cells around blood vessels differentiates into osteoblasts, which start forming spongy bone. 3. Periosteum forms. 4. Remaining growth happens like appositional growth
Vitamin C Necessary for proper collagen formation. deficiency leads to scurvy
Vitamin D Necessary for proper bone mineralization. Deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
Excess parathyroid hormone Leads to bone weakening
Excess of growth hormone (pituitary) Leads to gigantisism in children and accromegaly in adults
Deficit in growth hormone Leads to dwarfism in children
Types of fractures 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Comminuted 4. Compression or impacted 5. Greenstick 6. Avulsion
Simple fracture Bone is broken but not displaced
Compound fracture Bone breaks through the skin
Compression fracture Bone is compressed or telescopes within itself
Communited fracture Bone is fragmented
Greenstick Incomplete fracture + bending of the bone
Avulsion fracture Tendon or ligament pulls the bone away at the site of attachement
Healing of fracture 1. fracture hematoma 2. Soft callus forms 3. Hard callus form 4. Remodeling of hard callus into mature bone
Soft callus is composed of what? Spongy bone and fibrocartilage
Osteitis Inflammation of bone tissue caused by injury or infection
Periostitis Inflammation of periosteum caused by trauma or infection
Osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone interior caused by bacteria, usually entering the bone via the blood stream
Tuberculosis Can spread to the spongy bone, resulting in bone and joint destruction
Benign Neoplasms 1. Osteochondroma 2. Osteoma
Malignant Neoplasms 1. Osteogenic sarcoma 2. Multiple myeloma
Osteoporosis The reduction in bone mass due to deossification, most prevalent in middle-ages and elderly woman
Function of the vertebral column 1. Protection of spinal cord and spinal nerve roots 2. Support of the body 3. Movement of trunk and limbs
Kyphotic Spinal concavity faces anteriorly
Lordotic Spinal concavity faces posteriorly
Primary curvatures present in early fetal development 1. Thoracic curve (kyphotic) 2. Sacrococcygeal curve (kyphotic)
Secondary curvatures: develops after the primary curvature is already established 1. Cervical curvature (lordotic) 2. Lumbar curvature (lordotic)
Lateral curves of the spine Spinal concavity faces laterally, either right or left
Vertebral body Anterior portion of the vertebrae
Shape or the vertebral body Roughly cylindrical but specific shape varies by region
Epiphyseal rim of vertebral body Superior and inferior
Nutrient foramina Small foramina on front, back and sides of vertebral body for arteries and veins
Basivertebral venous foramen 1 or 2 large, centrally places foramina on posterior wall of vertebral body
Parts of the vertebral arch 1. Pedicle 2. Lamina 3. Vertebral foramen and vertebral canal 4. Lamina-pedicle junction
Pedicle Anterior portion of the arch
Lamina Posterior portion of the arch
Para-articular processes Acessory bone on the superior and or inferior edge of the lamina
Created by: LrB