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Neruophys - PCC

First lecture exam

Health More than just the absence of disease
When does the nervous system start to develop? 7th hour after fertilization
Homeostasis A key concept in physiology, status quo or close to
Neurophysiology The restoration of proper functioning of the nervous system and its control over the other body systems : homeostasis
How many cells in the human body 100 trillion
Tissue Different types of cells with the same intercellular substance
Organs Two or more different types of tissues make up an organ
System Different organs having a common function
4 primary classes of tissue Muscular, Nervous, Connective, Epithilial
How many neurons in the nervous system? 1 trillion
How many neurons in the brain 100 billion
What is the language on the neurons? Action Potential
What is the function of neuroglia To protect, support and nourish neurons
3 types of muscular tissue Smooth, Cardiac and Skeletal
Walter Cannon Coined the term HOMEOSTASIS
Where do all the vital processes occur? the cell
Systems of the body GI system, Respiratory System, Urinary System, CV System, Reproductive System, Nervous System, Lymphatic and Immune System
What are the 3 ''regulators'' of the body 1. Nervous system 2. Renal system 3. Endocrine system
What is the internal environment of the body? ECF or internal milieu
What is the function of ECF? Take oxygen and nutrients to the cells. Takes waste products away from the cells.
The contents of the ECF is transfered to what? The ICF = intracellular fluid
Name different types of ECF 1. Interstitial fluid 2. Blood plasma 3. Lymphatic fluid 4. Pleural fluid 5. Pericardial fluid 6. Cochlear and ocular fluids 7. Fluid of the tunic of the testes
Fluid components of the body 1. ECF 2. ICF
What percent of the body weight is ECF? 20%
What are the two components of ECF? Interstitial Fluid (ISF) Blood Plasma
Interstitial Fluid ECF outside of the vascular system, bathing the cells
What percent of the body is ISF? 15%
What is the total blood volume? Approx 5,1 L
What percent of body weight is blood plasma? 5%
What is ICF? Protoplasm = cytoplasm + nucleoplasm
What percent of the body weight is ICF? 40%
What percentage of the body weight are the other components? 40%
True or False: ECF is in constant motion? True
How is the ECF transported? Blood stream
Why is ECF so important? It is the reservoir for the needed nutrients and ions for the sustenance of life
What are the ions found in ECF? Ca, Na, Cl and HCO3
What are the gases found in ECF? O2, CO2
What are the nutrients found in ECF? Glucose (90 mg\dl) Fats
What is the pH of ECF? 7.4
What are the ions found in the ICF? K, PO4, Mg
What are the nutrients found in the ICF? Proteins
What is the pH of the ICF? 7
Name a few of the control systems in the body 1. pH regulation 2. Blood pressure regulation 3. Blood glucose regulation 4. Hormone regulation
What are feedback loops? Monitors a condition, reports it to a central control region (feed back) and then effect a change
Components of a feedback loop 1. Receptor 2. Control Center 3. Effector
Receptor component Variable are monitored by sensors
What are sensors? Sensory receptors; afferent nerve fibers
What is a controlled condition? A desired value or set point
A receptor sends information to what? The control center
What changes a set point? A stimulus
What is a stimulus? Anything that changes a set point
Example of feedback loops Body temperature: receptors in the skin send the message to the hypothalamus to adjust. Blood pressure: Baroreceptors in the skin control BP.
Control Center Receives sensory input and compares it to a set point
What does an error signal in the control center do? Activates the effector organ
What is an effector organ? An organ or tissue
What are the 2 types of feedback loops? Positive and Negative
Negative feedback loop A process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that reverses that change.
Is a negative feedback loop and open or closed system? Closed
Positive feedback loop Self amplifying cycle; a physiological change leads to greater change in the same direction
Positive feedback loops that are usefull 1. Labor 2. Hemostasis 3. Nerve impulse generation
Nerve impulse generation A stimulus causes cationic channels (Na) to suddenly open and changes the membrane potential, more Na channels open, more Na ions enter thus conducting the nerve impulses
In multicellular organisms, is there a direct exchange of nutrients and O2? No
Cells use nutrients in chemical reactions to do what? 1. Build bigger compounds 2. Produce energy
What processes are used when the cells use nutrients in chemical reactions? 1. Anabolic 2. Catabolic
Why do cells produce energy? Work, reactions, heart beat, motion, etc.
What are the major nutrients necessary for the body cells? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water
How do we get oxygen into the cells? Breath!!
What does the blood carry in addition to oxygen and carbon dioxide? Absorbed nutrients, interferon, RBC, WBC, antibodies, hormones, proteins
What are the organs responsible for altering nutrients to make them more easily absorbed? Endocrine, Kidneys and Adipose tissue
Why do muscles produce movement? To get food!
What are the functions of the skeletal muscles? Protection, locomotion, heat production
What does metabolic reactions produce? Waste, toxic substances
Which body systems are involved in excretion? Kidneys, Integumentary, urinary, Digestive, repiratory
How many liters of blood are filtered through the kidneys per minute? 5,1L
What is the rate of filtration of the blood through the kidneys per day? 180 L per day
Is CO2 removed by kidney filtration? No
What are the waste material associated with kidney filtration? Urea, uric acid, excess ions, water
Materials reabsorbed though the renal tubules include: Glucose, ions, water
True or False: RBCs and proteins are filtered by the kidneys? False
Factors of internal environment that must be homeostatically maintained are: 1. Nutrient concentration (responsible for energy) 2. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide concentration 3. Waste product concentration 4. pH 5. Salts and ion concentration 6. Temperature
The two systems that play a central, coordinated role in homeostasis are what? 1. Nervous system 2. Endocrine system
Roles of the Nervous and Endocrine systems 1. Detect changes in organ systems 2. Modifies its physiology 3. Coordinates hoerostasis
Anatomic subdivision of the nervous system CNS and PNS
CNS Brain and spinal cord
PNS Afferent and Efferent nerve fibers
Physiological subdivisions of the nervous system Sensory input portion, Integrative portion, Motor output (responsive portion)
Sensory subdivision of the nervous system Conducts sensory information to the CNS and it detects stimuli that originate from outside the body and within the organs (BP = baroreptors)
Integrative portion of the Nervous System The brain and interneurons (bridge the gap between sensory and motor neurons)
Motor subdivision of the nervous system Innervates the effector organs
Endocrine system Eight glands that secrete hormones
Ductless glands Secrete hormones, hormones reach the target cells, hormones regulate the target organ function
Two types of hormones 1. Protein 2. Lipids
What are the 2 types of temperature? Core Temps and Shell Temp
Which temperature is more important? Core Temp
What is responsible for production of heat? Catabolic reactions
If one mole of glucose is oxydized, how much energy is released through ATP and through heat? ATP = 219 kcal Heat = 467kcal
Performance of work and ATP utilization Joint friction, blood flow, brain, liver, heart, endocrine glands
Heat production is tied to the metabolic rate of what? kcal/hr or kcal/day
Factors that determine heat production (5) 1. BMR 2. Shivering and non-shivering thermogenisis 3. Stimulation of sympathetic nerves 4. Hormonal activity 5. Cellular chemical activity
Rate of heat loss depends on what? The speed of heat transfer from the core of the body to the skin to the ambient environment
What is the body's insulator and radiator? Skin and adipose tissue
Skin as an insulator Hypodermis acts as an insulator. Fat is a bad conductor of heat. Adipose tissue allows the maintenance of normal internal core temp despite the fluctuations of skin temp due to ambient temp changes
Skin as a radiator Arterivenous anastamosis... heat conduction of skin depends on degree of vasoconstriction, body core temp changes, ambient temp changes
Heat loss from the skin to environment happens in four ways: 1. Radiation (60%) 2. Conduction (18%) 3. Convection 4. Evaportation (22%)
Heat loss due to radiation Body radiates heat in all directions. Body will radiate heat if ambient environment is colder that skin
Heat loss due to Conduction Direct transfer of body heat through direct contact. 3% loss through conduction to other objects. 15% loss to conduction to air.
Heat loss due to convection Transfer of heat from the body by currents (air or fluid) This is why it feels cooler under a ceiling fan.
Heat loss due to Evaporation Sweat glands. Water evaporates from skin and lungs at a rate of 450-600ml a day. This is called insensible heat loss.
Why are woman often colder than men? Lower BMR that men and men have a higher level of testosterone (constriction of blood vessels)
Why are older people cold? Less body fat
Hyperthyroid and temperature Hot (increases thyroxin)
Hypothyroid and temperature Cold (decreases thyroxin)
Heart disease and temperature Poor circulation, therefor colder
Medication of temperature Antidepressants, diet pill, cold and sinus meds all make you feel hot. Betablockers and anithistamines make you feel cold
What effect does alcohol, nicotine and caffeine have on your body's temperature? Insensitive to cold
Autonomic control to sweating Anterior hypothalmic - peroptic area controls sweating.
Autonomic pathway to sweating Nerve impulse from anterior hypothalamic preoptic area to spinal cord to sympathetic nerves to sweat glands in the skin
What are the sweat gland innervated by? Cholinergic postgaglionic sympathetic nerve fibers
What else effect sweat secretion? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
The role of aldosterone in sweating When the salt concentration in your blood goes down because of sweating, this stimulates the production of aldosterone
How many grams of salt per day is lost in an unacclimatized person for the first few days of being out in the hot sun? 15-30 grams per day
How many grams of salt per day is lost in an acclimatized person in 4-6 weeks of prolonged heat exposure? 3-5 grams per day
Structure of the sweat glands: 2 parts 1. deep glandular portions 2. Coiled ducts
Thermosregulation Preoptic area in hypothalamus has a cluster of neurons called hypothalamic thermostat.
What is the normal temperature? 98.6 to 99.7
Hypothalamic thermostat control when it is too cold: 2 things 1. Heat conservation 2. Heat production
Heat conservation Dermal vasocontriction, stimulation of erector pilli muscle.
Heat production Increased by thermogenesis
Types of thermogenesis 1. Shivering thermogenisis 2. Chemical thermogenesis (thyroxin)
Long term effect in cold weather Increased metabolic rate; more nutrients utilized; we consume more calories to stoke the furnace
To increase body temperature 1. Skin vasoconstriction 2. pilli erection 3. Shivering 4. Chemical thermogenesis
When temperature is to high: 1. Vasodilation 2. Sweating 3. Heat production stopped
Fever Temperature about 108 kicks off the positive feedback loop
Chills Pyrogens increase hypothalamic thermostat setpoint suddenly
Flush Dermal vasodilation
Hyperthermia Increase in body temperature not caused by fever. The thermostat loses the ability to regulate body temperature.
Heat Exhaustion Severe electrolyte loss, hypotension, dizziness, vomiting and fainting (105-108)
Heat stroke Prolonged heat exposure with high humidity. Evaporative cooling is retarded.
Hypothermia Decreased core temp of 91 degrees F or lower
Frosbite Ice crystals form in tissues. Sudden vasocontriction of blood vessels.
The cells membrane of excitable cells have 2 important functions 1. Isolate cell-specific elements from the extracellular environment 2. Regulate the intracellular and extracellular ionic invironment
Lipid Bylayer 1. Phospholipids 2. Cholesterol 3. Gylcolipids
The cell membrane is highly permeable to what? Lipid soluble substances
The cell membrane has a low permeability to what? Ions, glucose, amino acids
3 basic functions of the cell membrane in production nerve impulses 1. hydrophobic tails provide a barrier to the movement of polar molecules between the ICF and ECF 2. Electrical capacitance 3. orientation of integral proteins
2 types of proteins in cell membrane 1. Integral or intrinsic 2. peripheral or extrinsic
Integral proteins Have ion channels and act as receptors for neurotransmitters substances. They also make cells stick together.
Peripheral proteins Are found absorbed or attached on the outside surfaces of the bilayer.
Carbohydrates Are found only on the outer half of the lipid bilayer as a thin sugar coating called the glycocalyx
Function of carbohydrates Cell to cell communication. Act as receptors, help in cell adhesion and enter into immune reaction
Transport across the cell membrane (2) 1. Simple diffusion (electrolyte and nonelectrolyte) 2. Carrier mediated diffusion
Simple diffusion (non electrolyte) Does not require metabolic energy. Molecules just pass through.
Net Diffusion From high concentration to low concentration
Net diffusion also known as flux or flow is dependent on what? 1. Concentration diffrences 2. Membrane thickness 3. Solubility in lipids of the membrane 4. molecular weight of the solute 5. Number of protein channels 6. Pressure diffrences across the membrane 7. Temperature 8. Diffusion coefficient
Diffusion coefficient D = P x A
Simple diffusion of electrolytes Occurs when the molecule is dissolved in the lipid matrix of the membrane or by going through membrane pores.
Carrier-mediated or Facilitate diffusion Also occurs down the concentration gradient and does not require metabolic energy. They require a carrier protein to cross the membrane
Factor affecting facilitated diffusion 1. Sterospecity 2. Saturation 3. Competition
Osmosis The net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of high concentration to low concentration when a barrier restricts the movement of solutes.
Osmolarity g = concentration of particle C = concentration of solutes
Hyperosmotic Solution with the higher osmolarity
Hypoosmotic Solution with the lower osmolarity
Isotonic asdf
Hypertonic jh
Created by: LrB