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Key Words

Abduction Movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body.
Ability An inherited, stable trait that determines an individual's potential to learn or acquire a skill.
Adduction Movement of a bone or limb towards the middle of the body.
Aerobic Exercise Working at a low to moderate intensity so that the body has time to use oxygen for energy production and can work for a long period of time.
Aerobic Training Zone Training in the aerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work aerobically. It is 60-80% of your MHR.
Aggression Often defined as a deliberate intent to harm or injure another person, but in sport it can be more controlled. It can be physical or mental. There are two types of aggression: direct aggression and indirect aggression.
Agility The ability to move and change direction quickly, at speed, while maintaining control.
Alveoli Small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.
Anabolic Steroids Artificially produced hormones that mimic testosterone and are prohibited. They promote muscle and bone growth and reduce recovery time.
Anaerobic Exercise Working for short periods of time at a high intensity without oxygen for energy production.
Anaerobic Training Zone Training in the anaerobic training zone allows the performer to develop their ability to work anaerobically. It is 80-90% of your MHR.
Antagonist The muscle or group of muscles that relax to allow a movement to take place. The antagonist works in an antagonistic pair with the agonist.
Arousal A physical and mental (physiological and psychological) state of alertness/readiness, varying from deep sleep to intense excitement or alertness.
Articulating bones Bones that meet at a joint to enable movement.
Axis An imaginary straight line through the body around which it rotates. There are three types of axis: sagittal, transverse and longitudinal.
Backflow The flowing backwards of blood. Valves in the veins prevent backflow.
Balance Maintaining the centre of the mass over the base of support. Balances can be static or dynamic.
Balanced Diet A diet that contains the right quantity of food so that you consume only as many calories as you expend each day; and the right mix of different food types so that the body receives all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals it needs.
Basic Skill A simple skill that does not require much concentration.
Beta Blockers Restricted drugs that steady the nerves by controlling the heart rate. They have a calming and relaxing effect.
Blood Doping A prohibited method that involves removing blood a few weeks before competition and then re-injecting it just prior to competition. It increases the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream, increasing the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.
Blood Pressure The pressure that blood is under. The systolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart contracts. The diastolic reading measures the pressure the blood is under when the heart relaxes.
Calorie A unit of measurement for heat or energy production in the body, normally expressed as Kcal.
Capillaries A network of microscopic blood vessels. They are only one cell thick.
Cardiac Cycle One cycle of diastole and systole is called the cardiac cycle.
Cardiac Output (Q) The volume of blood ejected from the heart in one minute. Cardiac output (Q) = stroke volume (SV) X heart rate (HR).
Cardio-respiratory system The name used to describe the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system working together.
Cardiovascular Endurance Also known as aerobic power. The ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to working muscles.
Closed Skill A skill that is not affected by the environment or performers within it. The skill tends to be done the same way each time.
Commercialisation The management or exploitation of a person, organisation or activity in a way designed to make a profit.
Complex Skill A skill that requires a great deal of concentration and coordination to perform.
Contract to compete An unwritten agreement between opponents to follow and abide by the written and unwritten rules of the sport.
Coordination The ability to use two or more different parts of the body together, smoothly and efficiently.
Deep Breathing Taking slow, deep breaths while relaxed.
Dehydration Excessive loss of water from the body, interrupting the normal functioning of the body.
Deoxygenated Blood Blood containing a low concentration of oxygen.
Diastole The phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood.
Diffusion Pathway The distance travelled during diffusion. The diffusion pathway is short in gaseous exchange.
Direct Aggression An aggressive act that involves physical contact with others.
Diuretic Drugs Prohibited drugs that remove fluid from the body by increasing the rate of urination.
DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, the pain you feel in your muscles the day after you exercise.
Dorsiflexion Movement at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle at the ankle joint.
Ectomorph A somatotype characterised by being tall and thin with narrow shoulders and narrow hips.
Effort The force required to move the load. It can also be referred to as 'force'.
Effort Arm The distance from the effort to the fulcrum.
Endomorph A somatotype characterised by a pear-shaped body and a tendency towards fatness. Endomorphs have wide hips and narrow shoulders.
EPO A peptide hormone that increases the red blood cell count and, therefore, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
Etiquette A convention or unwritten rule in an activity. It is not an enforceable rule but it is usually observed.
EPOC The amount of oxygen needed to recover after exercise. It is characterised by an increased breathing rate and deeper breathing after exercise.
Exhalation/Expiration The process of breathing out.
Expiratory Reserve Volume The amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume (after normal expiration). Expiratory reserve volume decreases during exercise.
Extension Increases in the angle of bones at a joint.
Externally Paced Skill A skill that is started because of an external factor. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by external factors, such as an opponent or the environment.
Extrinsic Feedback Information a performer receives about their performance from outside themselves, such as from a coach.
Extrinsic Motivation The drive to perform well or to win in order to gain external rewards.
Extrovert A sociable, active, talkative and outgoing personality type, usually associated with team sports.
Fatigue Physical fatigue is a feeling of extreme or severe tiredness due to a build-up of lactic acid in the muscles or working for a long period of time.
Feedback The information a performer receives about their performance. Feedback can be given during and/or after a performance.
Fine Movement Skill A skill involving small, precise movements, showing high levels of accuracy and coordination. It involves the use of a small group of muscles.
Fitness The ability to meet, or cope with, the demands of the environment.
FITT Principle Used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload. FITT stands for Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type.
Flexibility The range of movement possible at a joint.
Flexion Decrease in the angle of bones at a joint.
Frontal Plane Runs left to right and divides the body into front and back halves.
Fulcrum The fixed point at which a lever turns or is supported. It can also be referred to as the 'axis'.
Gamesmanship Attempting to gain an advantage by stretching the rules to their limit.
Gaseous Exchange The process where oxygen from the air in the alveoli moves into the blood in the capillaries, while carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli.
Gross Movement Skill A skill that uses large muscle groups to perform big, strong, powerful movements.
Guidance A method of conveying information to a performer. Guidance can be visual, verbal, manual or mechanical.
Haemoglobin The protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen (as oxyhaemoglobin) and carbon dioxide around the body.
Health A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Heart Rate The number of times your heart beats in one minute. One heartbeat is one contraction and relaxation of the heart. Heart rate is measured in beats per minute (BPM).
Home-field Advantage Gaining an advantage in a sporting event from being in familiar surroundings, with the majority of the spectators supporting you.
Hooliganism The disorderly, aggressive and often violent behaviour by spectators at sporting events.
Hydration Having enough water in the body to enable it to function properly.
Hypertrophy The enlargement of an organ or tissue caused by an increase in the size of its cells. When a muscle is trained, small tears are created. As they heal, they become thicker and increase in size.
Indirect Aggression An aggressive act that does not involve direct physical contact. It is taken out on an object in order to gain an advantage.
Information Processing The name given to the process that a performer goes through when they make and act on decisions. There are four steps in the basic information processing model: input, decision making, output, feedback.
Inhalation/Inspiration The process of breathing in.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume The amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume (after a normal inspiration). Inspiratory reserve volume decreases during exercise.
Intensity The amount of energy needed to complete an activity. Working at a high intensity requires a large amount of energy. working at a low intensity requires less energy.
Intrinsic Feedback Information a performer receives from within.
Intrinsic Motivation The drive to succeed that comes from within.
Introvert A quiet, shy, passive and reserved personality type, usually associated with individual sports performance.
Isometric Contraction A muscle contraction where the length of the muscle does not change when it contracts. There is no limb movement as a result.
Isotonic Contraction A muscle contraction where the muscle changes length when it contracts, resulting in limb movement. Isotonic contraction can be concentric (when the muscle contracts and shortens) or eccentric (when the muscle contracts and lengthens).
Kinaesthetic Feedback Received by receptors in the muscles. Physical sensations generated by movements are felt by the performer and provide a form of intrinsic feedback.
Lactic Acid A mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration.
Lever A rigid bar that turns about an axis to create movement. All levers contain a fulcrum, load and effort.
Load The weight or 'resistance' that the lever must move.
Load Arm The distance from the load to the fulcrum.
Longitudinal Axis Runs vertically through the body, from head to toe.
Mechanical Advantage Measures the efficiency of a lever. It is calculated as follows - mechanical advantage = effort/load (resistance) arm.
Media A diverse range of technologies that act as a means of mass communication. The media consists of the print media (sometimes referred to as 'the press'), the broadcast media, the internet and social media, and outdoor media.
Mental Health and Well Being A state of well being in which a person realises their potential, is able to cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make a contribution to their community.
Mental Rehearsal, Visualisation and Imagery Cognitive relaxation techniques involving control of mental thoughts and imagining positive outcomes.
Mesomorph A somatotype characterised by a muscular appearance, wide shoulders and narrow hips.
Motivation The drive to succeed, or the desire to achieve or be inspired to do something. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
Muscular Endurance The ability of a muscle or a muscle group to undergo repeated contractions, avoiding fatigue.
Musculoskeletal System The name used to describe the muscular system and the skeletal system working together.
Narcotic Analgesics Prohibited drugs that reduce the feeling of pain.
Nutrition The intake of food, considered in relation to the body's dietary needs. Good nutrition takes the form of an adequate, well balanced diet.
Obese A term used to describe people with a high fat content, caused by an imbalance in the number of calories consumed and the amount of energy expended. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of over 30
Open Skill A skill that is performed in a certain way to deal with a changing or unstable environment.
Outcome Goals Goals that focus on the end result, on winning.
Oxygenated Blood Blood containing a high concentration of oxygen.
Oxyhaemoglobin A chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds to oxygen.
Peptide Hormones Prohibited drugs that stimulate the production of naturally occurring hormones. EPO is a peptide hormone.
Performance Goals Personal standards to be achieved. Performers compare themselves against what they have already done or suggest what they are going to do. There is no comparison with other performers.
Physical Health and Well-Being All body systems working well, free from illness and injury, and bale to carry out everyday tasks.
Plane An imaginary line that splits the body in two and depicts the direction of movement. There are three types of plane: frontal, transverse and sagittal.
Plantar flexion Movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle at the ankle joint.
Positive Self Talk A cognitive relaxation technique involving developing positive thoughts about your performance.
Power The product of strength and speed. Power = Strength x Speed.
Prime Mover (or 'agonist') The muscle or group of muscles that contract to create movement. the prime mover works in an antagonistic pair with antagonist.
Principles of Training Guidelines that, if applied, ensure that training is effective and results in positive adaptions. The principles of training can be remembered using SPORT - Specificity, Progressive Overload, Reversibility and Tedium
Progressive Overload Gradually increasing the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, without the potential for injury. Overload involves gradually increasing the stress placed on the body during training.
Pulse The rhythmic throbbing that you can feel as your arteries pump blood around the body. You can measure your heart rate using your pulse.
Qualitative Data Data that focuses on understanding things; it involves descriptions about peoples opinions, about the way they feel, think and behave. Analysing qualitative data gives you a subjective answer to your question.
Quantitative Data Data that focuses on measuring things and involves numbers. Quantitative data involves facts and , therefore, gives you an objective answer to your question.
Reaction Time The time taken to initiate response to a stimulus.
Rehydration Consuming water to restore hydration.
Repetitions (Reps) The number of times an individual activity is performed.
Residual Volume The amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Reversibility Fitness levels are lost when you stop exercising.
Role Model A person looked up to by others an example to be imitated.
Rotation A circular movement around a joint or, in other words, a movement around an axis.
Sagittal Axis Runs horizontally through the body from front to back, through the belly button.
Sagittal Plane Runs forwards and backwards and divides the body into left and right halves.
Sedentary Lifestyle A lifestyle with irregular or no physical activity.
Self Paced Skill A skill is started when the performer decides to start it. The speed, rate or pace of the skill is controlled by the performer.
Sets A group of repetitions.
Skill A learned action or behaviour, with the intention of bringing about pre-determined results, with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of time and energy.
SMART Target A goal setting technique that can be used to increase motivation and reduce anxiety. SMART = Specific, Measurable, Accepted, Realistic and Time-bound.
Social Health and Well Being Basic human needs (food, clothing and shelter) are being met and an individual is socially active. They experience little stress in social situations, and have friends and a support network.
Somatotype A method of classifying body types. There are three somatotypes: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph.
Specificity Making training specific to the sport or activity being played or performed, to the movements, muscles and energy systems which are used in that sport or activity.
Speed The maximum rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time. Speed = Distance/Time
Sponsor An individual or group, usually a company, that provides financial or other forms of support to an event, activity, person or organisation.
Sponsorship Provision of funds or other forms of support to an event, activity, person or organisation in return for some kind of commercial return.
Sportsmanship Conforming to the rules, spirit and etiquette of a sport.
Stimulants Prohibited drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, increasing mental and physical alertness.
Strength The ability to overcome resistance. There are four types of strength: maximal strength, static strength, explosive strength and dynamic strength.
Stroke Volume The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.
Synovial Joint An area of the body where two or more articulating bones meet.
Systole The phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart contract and empty blood; when blood is ejected from the heart.
Tedium The boredom that can occur when training the same way every time. Variety is needed in a training programme.
Tendon Connective tissue attaches muscle to bone. Its role is to transfer the effort created by a contracting muscle to the bone, resulting in the movement of that bone.
Tidal Volume The normal amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath. Tidal volume increases with exercise.
Training Thresholds The upper and lower boundaries of the aerobic training zone and the anaerobic training zone are called training thresholds.
Trait Distinguishing qualities or characteristics belonging to a person.
Transverse Axis Runs horizontally through the body from left to right at the hips.
Transverse Plane Divides the body in half horizontally.
Vasoconstriction The narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow. The arteries constrict during exercise so that less blood is delivered to inactive areas.
Vasodilation The widening of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to increase blood flow. The arteries dilate during exercise so that more blood is delivered to active areas, increasing their oxygen supply.
Vital Capacity The largest volume of air that can be forcibly expired after the deepest possible inspiration.
Adaptability The potential to change with ease.
Adrenaline Natural hormone released to speed heart rate up.
Altitude Training Training at altitude where there is less oxygen. The body adapts by making more red blood cells to carry oxygen. The additional oxygen carrying red blood cells is an advantage for endurance athletes returning to sea level to compete.
Amateur Someone that takes part in an activity as a hobby, rather than for financial gain. They will have another main job outside of sport and take part for fun. They could participate at a lower level.
Body composition The percentage of body weight which is fat and non-fat (muscle and bone).
Carbohydrate The body's preferred energy source. Foods such as pasta and bread.
Circuit Training A series of exercise stations whereby periods of work are interspersed with periods of rest.
Closed Season Post (transition). It is defined as: period of rest to recuperate, players doing gentle aerobic exercise to maintain general fitness, fully rested and ready for pre-season training.
Competition Season (peak) The playing season, taking part in matches every week, maintenance of fitness related to the activity but not too much training as it may cause fatigue, which would decrease performance, concentration on skills/set plays to improve team performance.
Continuous Training Involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio- vascular fitness. Sometimes referred to as a steady state training.
Contract to Compete Unwritten agreement to follow and abide by the written and unwritten rules.
Embolism Blockage of a blood vessel.
Fartlek Training Swedish for ‘speed play’. Periods of fast work with intermittent periods of slower work. Often used in running, ie sprint, jog, walk, jog, sprint, etc.
Heart Attack It occurs when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked.
Heart Chambers They include the right and left atria and ventricles.
High intensity interval training (HITT) It’s an exercise strategy alternating periods of short intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods (see Interval training).
Hypertension High blood pressure in the arteries.
Interval Training Periods of training/work that are followed by periods of rest, eg work, rest, work, rest (see High intensity interval training).
Level Playing Field The same for all competitors.
Minerals Inorganic substances which assist the body with many of its functions, eg bone formation (Calcium).
One Rep Max The maximal amount that can be lifted in one repetition by a muscle/group of muscles (with the correct technique).
Positive Self Talk Developing cognitive positive thoughts about your own performance.
Physiology Study of how our cells, muscles and organs work together, and how they interact.
Post Season (transition) Period of rest/active recovery/light aerobic work after the competition period (season).
Power/explosive strength (anaerobic power) The product of strength and speed, ie strength x speed.
Pulse Raiser Any activity that raises heart rate. Usually as part of a warm up, eg light jog.
Pre-season (preparation) The period leading up to competition, usually using continuous/fartlek/interval training to increase aerobic fitness, weight training to build up strength and muscular endurance, developing techniques specific to the sport in order to be prepared.
Recovery Time required to repair the damage to the body caused by training or competition.
Season A period of time during which competition takes place or training seasons, dividing the year up into sectional parts for pre-determined benefits. Training seasons include: pre-season (preparation), competition season (peak), post-season (transition).
Skeletal System Skeletal system provides a framework of bones for movement, in conjunction with the muscular system.
Static Strength static ability to hold a body part (limb) in a static position. Muscle length stays the same/maximum force that can be applied to an immoveable object.
Sub-maximal Working below maximal intensity level.
Suppleness As with flexibility, the range of movement possible at a joint.
Target Zone The range within which athletes need to work for aerobic training to take place (60-80% of maximum heart rate).
Training A well-planned programme which uses scientific principles to improve performance, skill, game ability, motor and physical fitness.
Viscosity Thickening of the blood.
Vitamins Organic substances that are required for many essential processes in the body, eg Vitamin A for structure and function of the skin.
Weight training The use of weights/resistance to cause adaptation of the muscles.
Well-being Involves physical, mental and social well-being. The dynamic process that gives people a sense of being comfortable, healthy or happy.
FITT Frequency – how often you train, intensity – how hard you train, time – the length of the training session, type – the specific method, eg continuous training.
Created by: KerryWilliams