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OPT Developmental

congenital defect present at birth
hereditary defect genetically transmitted from parent to offspring
orofacial clefts caused by disturbances in fusion of facial processes
bifid uvula the most minimal manifestation of cleft palate
commissural lip pits small mucosal invaginations of the lip at the corners of the mouth at the vermillion border; associated with {pre auricular pits}
paramedian lip pits congenital invaginations on both sides of the lower vermillion border, can express saliva
van der Woude syndrome exhibits paramedian lip pits with a cleft lip/palate
double lip redundant fold of tissue on mucosal side of upper lip
Ascher syndrome exhibits double lip, swollen upper eyelid, and thyroid enlargement
fordyce granules ectopic sebaceous glands in 80% of the population; yellow/cream papules on the buccal mucosa
leukoedema thickened buccal mucosa, diffuse white/gray opalescent
microglossia small tongue
macroglossia large tongue
ankyloglossia tongue-tied; shortened lingual frenum
lingual thyroid remnants of thyroid tissue in base of the the tongue originating from the foramen cecum
fissured tongue (scrotal tongue) grooves/fissures on dorm of tongue, usually asymptomatic; associated with {benign migratory glossitis (geographic tongue)}
Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome exhibits facial swelling/paralysis and fissured tongue
hairy tongue accumulation of keratin on filiform papillae from smoking, antibiotics, and poor oral hygiene
variscosity (varix) abnormal dilated/tortuous veins, usually on under side of the tongue
caliber-persistent artery branch of artery positioned in superficial mucosa without reduction in size, usually found in lips; can sometimes feel a pulse
lateral soft palate fistula bilateral perforations of anterior tonsillar pillars
coronoid hyperplasia large coronoid process that limits opening
condylar hyperplasia excessive growth of one of the condyles, occlusal plane tilts and is corrected with surgery or ortho
condylar hypoplasia underdevelopment of condyle, see in {Treacher-Collins syndrome}
bifid condyle double headed condyle, usually asymptomatic
exostosis localized protuberance of lamellar bone from cortical plate
reactive subpontine exostosis exostosis that develops under bridge pontic, usually on lower
torus palatinus common exostosis in midline of palate
torus mandibularis exostosis on lingual surface of mandible above the mylohyoid line
Eagle syndrome calcification of stylohyoid ligament and elongation of the styloid process
Stafne defect (lingual mandibular salivary gland depression) focal concavity containing part of the submandibular gland seen on a pano
submandibular salivary gland depression (Stafne defect) depression between molars and angle of mandible, from submandibular gland
sublingual gland salivary gland depression (anterior Stafne defect) in the anterior mandible from sublingual gland; shows up on radiograph as a radiolucency over apices
palatal cysts of the newborn epithelial-lined, keratin-filled cysts along median palatal raphe at the junction of the hard and soft palate, usually regress spontaneously
Epstein's pearls cysts along the midline of the palate from trapped epithelium
Bohn's nodules cysts near the junction of hard and soft palates from minor salivary gland epithelium
nasolabial cyst (nasoalveolar cyst) rare, in upper lip lateral to the midline; misplaced epithelium from the nasolacrimal duct
globulomaxillary cyst does not exist, between the upper lateral and the canine; better called {globulomaxillary radiolucency}
nasopalatine duct cyst (incisive canal cyst) most common cyst, develops from remnants of nasopalatine duct; seen as radiolucency on midline between centrals
cyst of the incisive papilla nasoplatine cyst that only involves soft tissue without bone involvement
median palatal cyst probably posterior nasopalatine duct cyst
median mandibular cyst does not exist
epidermoid cyst most common follicular cyst of the skin; arises from hair follicles in acne prone areas, seen in Gardner Syndrome -appears as subcutaneous white nodule filled with orthokeratin
pilar cyst in scalp, similar to epidermoid cyst except no granular layer and keratin is very compact and can be calcified
dermoid cyst cystic form of a teratoma but does not have all 3 germ layers; in midline of floor of the mouth, contains skin appendages -considered {forme fruste}
thyroglossal duct cyst cyst from remnants of thyroglossal duct; in midline anywhere from foramen cecum to sternal notch
branchial cleft cyst developmental cyst in lateral neck on anterior border of SCM; epithelium from 2nd branchial arch, walls contain lymphoid tissue with germinal centers
oral lyphoepithelial cyst intraoral cyst that develops with oral lymphoid tissue usually in floor of mouth and tongue
hemihyperplasia unilateral enlargement of a body part; 6% chance of developing {abdominal cancer}
hemifacial hyperplasia unilateral enlargement of face; 6% chance of developing {abdominal cancer}
progressive hemifacial atrophy (Romberg syndrome) progressive atrophy of one side of the face
linear scleroderma linear scar-like area demarcating the abnormal skin in Romberg syndrome; "en coup de sabre"
segmental odontomaxillary dysplasia unilateral expansion of the maxilla with fibrous hyperplasia of overlying gingiva
Crouzon syndrome early closing of cranial sutures {craniosynostosis}; associated with increased paternal age
brachycelphaly short head
scaphocephaly boat-shaped head
trigonocephaly triangle-shaped head
Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly) exhibits skull elongated from superior to inferior {acrobrachycephaly} and fused digits
mandibulofacial dystosis (Treacher-Collins syndrome) defects in 1st and 2nd branchial arches with variable expressivity; hypo plastic zygoma, notching of lower eyelid {coloboma}, hypoplastic parotid glands
coloboma notching of lower eyelid
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold