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Ch 2 & 3 Vocab

CH 2 & 3 Vocab

TermDefinition
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass The quantity of matter an object has
Elements Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
Atom The simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Nucleus The central region makes up the bulk of the mass of the atom and consists of 2 kinds of subatomic particles (proton & neuron)
Proton Subatomic particle, positively charge, in the nucleus
Atomic # # of protons in an atom
Mass # Mass of an atom is equal to the total # of protons and neutrons of an atom
Electrons Balances out the equal # of positive protons, negatively charged particles
Orbital A 3 dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have different # of neutrons
Compounds Made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
Chemical Bonds The attractive forces that hold atoms together
Covalent Bond Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule Simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free
Ion Atom or molecule with an electrical charge
Ionic Bond Positive and negative charges attracting eachother
Energy The ability to do work
Chemical Reaction One or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
Reactants Shown on the left side of an equation
Products Shown on the right side of a reaction
Metabolism Describes all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Activation Energy Amount of energy needed to start a reaction
Catalysts Certain chemical substances reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
Enzyme A protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
Redox Reactions Reactions in which electrons are transferred between attoms (oxidation-reduction reactions)
Oxidation Reaction A reactant loses one or more electrons (becomes positive)
Reduction reaction A reactant that gains one or more electrons (becomes negative)
Polar
Hydrogen Bond The force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
Cohesion An attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
Adhesion The attractive force between 2 particles of different substances
Capillarity The attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
Solution A mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
Solute A substance dissolved in the solvent (sugar)
Solvent The substance in which the solute is dissolved (water)
Concentration The amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
Saturated Solution Where no more solute (sugar) can dissolve
Aqueous Solutions Water is the solvent-are universally important to living things
Hydroxide Ion OH- ion
Hydronium Ion H3O+
Acid The solution if the # of of hydronium ions (H3O+) in a solution is greater than the # of hydroxide ions
Base Solution where there's more hydroxide ions (OH-) than hydronium ions (H30+)
pH Scale Compares the relative concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions
Buffers Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
Organic Compounds One of the categories for compounds. Made primarily of carbon atoms (not water)
Functional Groups In organic compounds, cluster of atoms influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and chemical reactions the molecules undergo
Monomers Smaller, simpler compounds molecules that built up carbon compounds
Polymer A molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
Macromolecules Large polymers (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids)
Condensation Reaction Where monomers link to form polymers
Hydrolysis Reaction where water is used to break down down a polymer
Adenosine
Carbohydrates Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
Monosaccharide Monomer carbohydrate (simple sugar) contains carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
Disaccharide
Polysaccharide A complex molecule composed of 3 or monosaccharides
Proteins Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen
Amino Acids Linkage of monomers that form proteins
Peptide Bond A covalent bond formed from 2 amino acids
Polypeptides Long chains formed from amino acids
Substrate The reactant being catalyzed
Active Site Folds in the enzyme with a shape that allows the substrate to fit into the active site
Lipids Large, nonpolar organic molecules (don't dissolve in water)
Triglycerides Lipid
Fatty Acids Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
Phospholipids Have 2 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
Wax A type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid Composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
Nuclear Acids Very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important info in the cell
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Contains info that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Stores and transfers info from DNA thats essential for the mana factoring of proteins
Nucleotide Made of 3 components: a phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar, & ring shaped nitrogenous base
Created by: 15022