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Chapter 2 and3 Vocabulary

Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass The quantity of matter an object has
Element Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
Atom The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element
Nucleus Makes up the bulk of the cell and contains a proton and a neutron
Proton A positively charged particle that is contained in the necleus
Neuton A particle that has no charge and is contained ijn the nucleus
Atomic Number The number of protons in one atom
Mass Number Equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the object
Electron Negatively charged particles
Orbital is a three dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
isotope Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Compound Made up of atoms of two or more elements fixed in proportions
Chemical Bond Are the attractive forces that hold atoms together
Covalent Bond When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Molecule Is the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties in a substance and can exist in a free state.
Ion An atom or molecule with an electric charge
Ionic Bond When one or more elections are transferred from one atom to another
Energy The ability to do work
Chemical Reaction One or more substances changed to make two different substances
Reactant The ingredients of a chemical reaction
Product Shown on the right side of the equation, these are what is produced in result
Metaboloism All chemical reactions that occur in an organism
Activation energy The amount of energy needed to start the reaction
Catalyst Reduce the amount of activation energy needed for a reaction to take place
Enzyme A protein that speeds up a metabolic reaction without being permanently changed or destoyed
Red ox reaction Reactions where electrons are transferred between atoms
Oxidation reaction When a reactant looses one or more electrons, and become positive
Reduction Reaction When a reaction gains one or more elections, and becoming negative
Polar An uneven distribution of charge
Hydrogen Bond The attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge, and another atom or molecule with a full negative charge
Cohesion An attractive force that hold molecules of the same substance together
Adhesion The attractive force between two particles of a different substance
Capillary The attraction between molecules that cause the rise of a surface of an liquid that causes the rise in the surface liquid when in contact with a solid.
Solutions Mixture in which one or two substances are uniformly distributed in a another substance
Solute The substance dissolved in a solvent
Solvent The substance in which the site is dissolved
Concentration The amount of solute in a given solvent
Saturated Solution One in which no more solute can dissolve
Aqueous Solution Solutions in which water is the solvent. Important to living things
Hydroxide ion A negatively charged particle made up of one hydrogen and one oxygen molecule
Hydronium ion A positively charged ion having three hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
Acid A solution where the number of hydronium ions is greater than that of the hydroxide ions.
Base A solution where the number of hydroxide ions is greater than that of the hydronium ions.
Ph Scale A scale that shows the concentrations o ions in a liquid, ranges from 0-14
Buffer Chemical Substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
Organic Compound Compounds that are primarily made up pf carbon atoms
Functional group A cluster of atoms that influence the characteristics of molecules and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
Monomer Small and simple molecules made up of carbon
Polymer Is a molecule that consists of repeated linked units
Macromolecule Large polymers
Condensation reaction When monomers link to polymers
Hydrolysis Water is used to break down a polymer
Adenosine Triosphate(ATP) Compounds that store large quantities of energy in their overall structure
carbohydrate Organic compounds made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen.
Monosaccharide A monomer of carbohydrate
Disaccharide Two sugars that are combined( two monosaccharides)
Polysaccharide A molecule made up of three or more monosaccharides
Proteins Organi compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Amino Acids The monomer of proteins
Petite Bond A covalent bond formed from two or more amino acids
Polypeptides Amino acids that form a very long chain
Substrate The reactant being woken down (catalyzed by an enzyme
Active Site The folds in an enzyme that allow the substrate to fit
Lipids Lare non polar organic molecules that don't dissolve in water
Triglycerides Most common fat used for energy and cell membrane
Phospholipids Parts of a cell membrane that have two fatty acids attached to one glycerol
Wax A lipid that is made of a long fatty acid chain joined by a long alcohol chain
Steroids Molecules that are composed of 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
Nucleic acids Are organic molecules that store info within the cell
DNA Determines the characteristics of an organism and direct cella activity
RNA Stores info from DNA that is essential for manufacturing proteins
Nucleotide The monomer of nucleic acid
Created by: nwbs