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Gr. 9 Science Notes

SNC1D Mr. Roen Exam

What are some rules for the science labs? 1. Mutual respect for all; the golden rule. 2. No horseplay 3. Wear safety goggles when needed. 4. Clean up after yourself 5. Always be sure of what you are doing and follow procedures
What are the four branches of Science? Biology, Chemistry, Earth and Space, and Physics
What is Science? The word "science" comes from the Latin word "scientia," which means knowledge.
What is a theory? A theory is a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained: The particle theory.
What is a law? A scientific law is the description of an observed phenomenon. It doesn't explain why the phenomenon exists or what causes it.
What is a model? In science, a model is a representation of an idea, an object or even a process that is used to describe and explain phenomena that cannot be experienced directly.
Define "Technology." The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.
What are all the steps to the scientific method. 1.Purpose 2. Hypothesis 3. Materials / Methods 4. Observations 5. Analysis 6. Conclusion
What are the two different kinds of observations? There are quantitative and qualitative observations.
What are qualitative observations? Qualitative observations use your senses to observe the results. (Sight, smell, touch, taste and hear.)
What is a quantitative observation? Quantitative observations are made with instruments such as rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, and thermometers. These results are measurable.
What is a "control" in an experiment? A control is a set of standard values or measurements in an experiment with which changes are compared.
What is a "variable" in an experiment? A variable is a factor that can affect the result of an experiment.
How do you light a Bunsen burner? 1. Close the air adjustment 2. Light a match 3. Open the gas supply 4. Use the air adjustment to get the preferred type of flame Remember "ALGA" (Air, Light, Gas, Adjust)
What does WHMIS mean? WHMIS means Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
What does MSDS mean? MSDS means Material Safety Data Sheet
What does HHPS mean? HHPS means Hazardous Household Product Symbols
What is "measurement"? Measurement is a comparison of some unknown quantity ti a known or accepted standard
What is the acronym for metric conversion? K H D U D C M King Henry Died Unusually Drinking Chocolate Milk
Name the other points in the Particle Theory. 1. All matter is made of particles 2. Particles of the same substance are the same 3. 4. Particles are in constant motion 5. 6. 3. As particles get closer together, the forces of attraction get stronger 5. The amount of energy a particle has depends on its speed and mass 6. Temperature is a measure of the motion energy of all the particles in an object.
Name the three states of matter. Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Which state(s) are considered fluid? Liquids and Gases
Which state of matter can be described with viscosity? Liquid
What is the change of state called when a solid turns into a liquid? Melting
What is the change of state when a liquid turns into a solid? Freezing
What is the change of state when a liquid turns into a gas? Evaporation
What is the change of state when a gas turns into a liquid? Condensation
What is the change of state when a gas turns into a solid? Deposition
What is the change of state when a solid turns into a gas? Sublimation
List some quantitative ways of describing matter. Mass, Volume, dimensions (height, width, length), temperature, density, boiling point, melting point
List the characteristic properties of a substance. Density, boiling point, and melting point
Which state of matter has a definite shape and volume? A solid
Which state of matter changes in volume to fill its container? Gas
During changes of state the temperature ________________. Remains constant
In general, what happens to the volume of a substance during a change of state where heat is required? The particles will be farther apart, so the volume increases
In general, what happens to the density of a substance during a change of state where heat is required? The density decreases
What is diffusion? Diffusion is the spontaneous spreading of a material from high to low concentrations. The warmer the temperature, the faster the diffusion.
What are the vertical columns on the periodic table called? Groups
What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called? Periods
Where are the metals on the periodic table? On the left of the blue staircase
List the families of the Periodic Tables. Hydrogen, Alkali Metals, Alkali Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Chalcogens, Halogens, The Noble Gases
Name the parts of the atom. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
Who created the "Raisin Bun"/ "Plum Pudding" model for the atom? J. J. Thomson
Who created the "Atomic Theory?" John Dalton
What is an ion? An ion is an atom that does not have a full valence shell and so it will lose/gain an electron to become stable (have a full outer shell). REMEMBER, nature is lazy so it will do whatever is the easiest.
What is a compound? A compound is a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. The elements in any compound are always present in fixed ratios.
What is an ionic compound? An ionic compound is created by the taking/losing of electrons from one element to another. The new compound is bound together by the + and - attractions.
What is an element? An element is simply one type of element. ex. Gold
What is a physical change? A physical change is a change of state of an element and not a change in composition. It usually can be reversed.
What is a chemical change? A chemical change is a change where new substance(s) is/are formed. It is usually irreversible.
List the Clues of a Chemical Change. 1. Heat or light is emitted 2. a solid forms (precipitation) 3. colour change 4. formation of a gas (bubbles) 5. odour
What is a pure substance? A pure substance has a constant composition and uniform properties. ex) H2O and Gold
What is a mixture? A Mixture contains more than one type of particle.
What is a mechanical mixture? The particles are not uniformly scattered and it usually isn't clear. It is also called heterogeneous.
What is a solution? The particles are uniformly scattered and it is usually clear and transparent. It is also called homogenous.
What is a solvent? A solvent is the substance that dissolves the solute to form the solution.
What is a solute? A solute is a substance that the solvent dissolves to form a solution.
What is a suspension? A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of a solvent-like phase some time after their introduction. ex) sand in water, and dust in a room
What is a colloid? A colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
What is an isotope? An isotope is a form of an element that has the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Isotopes differ from the element in atomic mass, but has the same chemical properties.
What is an endothermic reaction? An endothermic reaction is a reaction that is accompanied by the absorption of heat
What is an exothermic reaction? An exothermic reaction is a reaction that releases energy or heat. It is the opposite of a endothermic reaction.
What is static electricity? Static Electricity is the build up of charge on an object and is due to the loss or gain of electrons.
What is grounding? When a charged object is brought into contact with the ground, it will take/give electrons from the earth to become neutral
List the laws of electrostatics. 1. Repulsion; Like charges repel 2. Attraction; Different charges attract 3. A charged object may attract a neutral object
What is a conductor? A conductor is a material that allows electricity to flow through it.
What is a insulator? An insulator is a material that does not allow electricity to flow though it.
What is an electrical circuit? An electrical circuit is simply a path for electrons to follow or flow through.
What are the four main parts of a circuit? 1. Source 2. Conductors 3. Control/ Switch 4. Load
What is a package of electrons called? A Coulomb
What is 1C/second called? An ampere (A)
P= Power
V= Voltage
I= Current
What two sources of info =P V x I or Voltage x Current
E= Energy
t= Time
Q= Charge
What two sources of info = E P x t or Power x Time
What two sources of info = Q Q= E/V or Energy divided by Voltage
What is another word for electric potential? Another word for it is "Voltage" because it is measured in volts.
What is Current measured in? Current is measured in amperes or A
A formula for current is... I = Q/t
A formula for Voltage is... V = ∆E /Q
What is the current, voltage, and resistance like in a series circuit? I total = I1 = I2 = I3 ... V total = V1 + V2 + V3 ... R total = R1 + R2 + R3 ...
What is the current, voltage, and resistance like in a parallel circuit? I total = I1 + I2 + I3 ... V total = V1 = V2 = V3 ... 1/R total = 1/ R1 = 1/R2 = 1/R3 ...
What is a thermocouple? A thermocouple is a device that creates current. It has two pieces of metals, one that has a stronger hold on electrons, close to each other and a weak current is produced between the two.
What is a solar cell? A solar cell uses light energy to produce current. When light falls on it, the electrons move, producing an electrical current.
What is a generator? A generator consists of a wire coil that has a magnet moving rapidly in and out of it.
What is the Piezo-electric Effect? The piezo-electric effect occurs when certain crystals (quartz and Rochelle salt) are "squeezed" and positively charged atoms are forced one way and negatively charged ones the other way. If a conductor is connected, a current results.
What is the formula for percent efficiency? PE = UEO/TEEO x 100% Percent efficiency = Useful energy output / total electrical energy output x 100%
What is the formula for the cost to operate? CtO = (P)(t)(CoE) Cost to Operate (cents) = Power used (kW) x Time (hours) x Cost of Electricity (cents/kiloWatt*hour)
What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of interaction of living things with each other and with the non-living factors in their environment.
What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem is a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment. An ecosystem is considered to be sustainable if the ecosystem can maintain itself over a long period of time.
What is a biotic factor? A biotic factor is a living factor in an organism, which can be organized in either a food chain or a food web.
What is an abiotic factor? An abiotic factor is a fator in an ecosystem that is non-living.
What is a niche? A niche is an organism's day to day job that helps keep the ecosystem balanced.
What is an ecological succession? An ecological succesion is when an ecosystem undergoes a change without any human interference. Factors of this can be biotic and abiotic.
Created by: Katelyn_McKenna