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General A & P

Chapter 5 - Standard Esthetics

QuestionAnswer
The study of the functions and activities peformed by the body's structures physiology
The study of body structures that can be seen by the naked eye, and what they are made up of anatomy
The science of the minute strctures of organic tissues histology
The basic unit of all living things; responsible for carrying on all living life processes cell
A colorless, jelly-like substance in which food elements are present, i.e. proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts & water protoplasm
All protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus cytoplasm
Structure that encloses protoplasm cell membrane
Dense protoplasm found in the center of the cell nucleus
Cells divide into two identical cells are called... daughter cells
Cells reproduce by a process known as... mitosis
Constructive metabolism, in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones anabolism
The phase of metabolism in which complex compounds a broken down into smaller ones is called catabolism
Supplies oxygen to the blood lungs
Removes toxic products of digestion liver
Excrete water and waste products kidneys
Digests food stomach
Circulates blood heart
Separates muscles facia
What are the eleven major body systems? CirculatoryDigestiveEndocrineExcretoryIntegumentaryMuscularNervousReproductiveRespiratorySkeletalLymphatic/Immune
The tissue that supports, protects and binds together other tissues of the body is Connective tissue
Bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, facia and fat or adipose are examples of what type of tissue? Connective tissue
A protective covering on the body surfaces. Epithelial tissue
Protein fibers also located in the connective tissue are Collagen and elastin
Contracts and moves the various parts of the body. Muscular tissue
Carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Nerve tissue
Nerve tissue is composed of special cells which make up the nerves, brain and spinal cord. Neurons
A rod-shaped organelle. Centrioles
A membrane-enclosed organelle; sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. mitochrondria
A specialized sub-unit within a cell that has a specific function. organelle i.e. little organ
A collection of similar cells that perform a particular funcion. tissue
Groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function. organs
Controls the steady circulation of the eblood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels circulatory system
Changes food into nutrients and wastes; consistes of mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric gland, and other organs digestive
Affects the growth, development, sexual activities and health of the entire body; consists of specialized glands. endorcrine
Purfies the body by the elimanation of waste matter; consists of kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs excretory
Serves as a protective covering and helps in regulating the body's temperature; consistes of skin, accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails. integumenary (6-8 lbs weight)
Covers, shapes and supports the skeleton tissue, also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles. muscular
Controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves. nervous
Responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring. reproductive
Enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen, and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product; consits of lungs and air passages. respiratory
Physical foudation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints. skeletal
Protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing microorganisms lymphatic or immune
A rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. skeleton
How are muscles connected to bone? tendons
How are bones connected to bones? ligaments
Several types of bone cells embedded in a web of inorganic salts (mostly calcium and phosphorus) to give the bone strenth is what? bone tissue
Collagenous fibers and gound substance give what to the bone? flexibility
What system gives shape and support to the body and protects various internal structures and vital organs? skeletal
Serves as attachment for muscles and act as levers to produce body movement skeletal system
Helps produce both white and red blood cells; stores most of the body's calcium supply as wells as phosphorus, magnesium and sodium skeletal system
What is one function of bone marrow? produce red and white blood cells
The connection between two or more bones of the skeleton is called a what? joint
These are movable, such as elbows, knees and hips; and immovable, such as the pelvis or skull, which allow little or no movement. What are the two types of joints?
The human head contains how many bones and these are divided into how many groups? 22 bones; the cranium and facial bones.
How many bones form the cranium? 8 bones
How many bones form the face? 14 bones
Name the 8-bones of the cranium... occipital, 2-parietal, frontal, 2-temporal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
occipital bone The hindmost bone of the skull that forms the back of the skull above the nape.
2-parietal bones Form the sides and crown (top) of the cranium.
frontal bone Forms the forehead.
2-temporal bones Form the sides of the head in the ear region.
ethmoid The light, spongy bone between the eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavities.
sphenoid Joins all the bones in the cranium together.
Name the 14-bones of the face. 2-nasal, 2-lacrimal, 2-zygomatic (malar bones), 2-maxillary, mandible, 2-turbinal, vomer, 2-palatine bones.
nasal bones Form the bridge of the nose.
The smallest and most fragile bones of the face; situated at the front inside part of the eye socket. lacrimal
Which bones form the prominence of the cheeks; cheekbones zygomatic
This bone forms the upper jaw. maxillary
This bone forms the lower jawbone, the largest and strongest bone of the face. mandibular
The thin layered spongy bone on either side of the outer walls of the nasal depression turbinal (aka) nasal conchae
The flat, thin bone that forms the part of the nasal septum. vomer
These form the hard palate of the mouth. palatine
A U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue. hyoid
What does the hyoid bone support? The tongue and its muscles.
The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in the neck region are the what? cervical vertebrae
How many cervical vertebrae are there? 7-vertebrae
An elastic, bony cage that acts as a protective framework for the heart, lungs and other internal organs. thorax
The thorax is made up of what? the sternum (breastbone), spine, 12-pairs of ribs, and connective cartilage.
A flat bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle and rotates along its axis like a key when the shoulder is in movement the clavicle or collar bone
A flat bone, roughly triangular in shape that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). the scapula or shoulder blade
The uppermost and largest bone of the arm. humerous
The inner and larger bone of the forearm (lower arm), attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger. ulna
The smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb. radius
A flexible joint held together by ligaments to form the wrist. carpus
Name the number of bones in the carpus? 8-carpals
Consists of five long, slender bones in the palm of the hand. Metacarpus
Name the bones of the fingers. phalanges
How many bones are in the fingers? 3-bones in each finger, and 2-bones in each thumb (totaling 14-bones).
muscular system Covers, shapes and supports the skeletal tissue.
How many muscles does the human body have? over 600
Approximately what is the percent of the body's weight do muscles make up? 40 percent
How many muscles of the body are found in the face? 30 facial muscles
What are muscles? Fibrous tissues that are able to stretch and contract according to the body's movements.
Name the 3-types of muscular tissue: Striated, nonstriated and cardiac muscle.
Striated muscles are also called what? Skeletal or voluntary muscles.
These "striped" muscles are attached to the bones and make of a large percentage of body mass. Striated or skeletal muscles.
Involuntary, visceral (interal), or smooth muscles are called what? nonstriated
Which muscles function automatically, without conscious will as some of the interanl organs of the body? nonstriated
A type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls of the heart and is one of three major types of muscle tissue. Cardiac muscle
Shares similarities with skeletal muscle with regard to its striated appearance and contraction, with both differing significantly from smooth muscle cells. Cardiac muscle
The cardiac muscle is under control of which system. ANS (autonomic nervous system)
The part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. ANS (autonomic nervous system)
Affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal: most of its actions are involuntary, some, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind. ANS (autonomic nervous system)
The body's ability to regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. homeostasis
Name the 3-parts fo the muscle. origin, insertion and the belly
What is the part of the muscle that does not move? origin
The moveable attachment of the muscle that effects contractions and can be seen. insertion
The middle part of the muscle. belly
Pressure in massage is usually directed from... the insertion to the orgin
Name how muscular tissue can be stimulated. a) massage, b) electrical current, c) light rays, d) heat rays, e) moist heat, f) nerve impulses, and g) chemicals
Name the muscles of the scalp. a) epicranious, b) occipitalis, c) frontalis, d) aponeurosis
A broad muscle that covers the top of the skull and consists of the frontalis and occipitalis epicranious
The muscle at the back of the epicranious that draws the scalp backward. occiptalis
The muscle positioned at anterior portion of the epicranious that raises the eybrows, draws the scalp foreward and causes wrinkles across the forhead. frontalis
Layers of flat broad tendons connecting the occipitalis and frontalis; stabalizes. aponeurosis
The muscle above the ear that drawes the ear upward. auricularis superior
The moveable attachment of the muscle that effects contractions and can be seen. insertion
The muscle in the front of the ear that draws the ear forward auricularis anterior
The muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward auricularis posterior
A broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin. platysma
The muscles that coordinate in opening and closing the mouth and are sometimes referred to as "chewing" muscles. masseter temporalis
The muscle responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip platysma
The muscle extending from along side of the neck from the ear to the collar bone. sternocleidomastoideus
The muscle that rotates the head from side to side and up and down. sternocleidomastoideus
The muscle located beneath the frontalis and obicularis oculi; draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically. corrugator
The ring muscle of the eye socket; it closes the eyes orbicularis oculi
The only muscle attached to the nose; lowers the eyebrows and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose. procerus
The thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips, as in blowing a whistle. buccinator (bucc = cheek)
A muscle surrounding the lower lip that depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side depressor labii inferioris (aka) quadratus labii inferioris
A muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws in inward. levator anguli oris (aka) caninus
A muscle surrounding the upper lip that elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostril, as in expressing distaste. levator labii superioris (aka) quadratus labii superioris
A muscle surrounding the upper lip that elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostril, as in expressing distaste. levator labii superioris (aka) quadratus labii superioris
The muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin mentalis
The flat band around the upper and lower lips that compress, contract, pucker, and wrinkles the lips as in kissing. obicularis oris
The muscle that draws the corner of the mouth out and back as in grinning risorius
The muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corners of the mouth triangularis
Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth that elevate the lips, as in laughing zygomaticus major and minor
A large, flat, triangular muscle that covers the lower back; from the lower half of the vertebrae column and iliac crest (hip bone) and attaches to the front of the upper part of the humerous lattisiums dorsi (lats)
Musles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm pectoralis major and minor (pects)
A muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm. serratus anterior
Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back: shrugs shoulders and stabalizes the scapula. trapezius (traps)
Muscles that produce contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm, flex the elbow and turn the palms downward biceps
A large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body. deltoid
A large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm triceps
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand and fingers to form a straight line extensors
Extensors of the wrist, are involved in bending the wrist flexors
Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward pronators
Muscle that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward supinator
An system that is responsible for coordinating activities performed by the body. nervous system
What are the over 100 billion nerve cells that cover the entire human body called? neurons
What are the principal components of the nervous system? brain, spinal cord and the nerves
The primary controls center of the nevous system. central nervous system (CNS)
The main function of this system is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs; it is not protected by bone or by the blood-brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries peripheral nervous system (PNS)
This system controls consciousness and all mental activities, voluntary functions and muscle actions, incl. all body movements and facial expressions central nervous system (CNS)
Connects the outer parts of the body, i.e. muscles and glands, to the CNS; carries impulses, or messages to and from the CNS. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Causes us to react to our external environment; from the efferent peripherial system somatic nervous system
Causes the internal regulation of impulses from the CNS to smooth muscles; from the efferent peripherial system autonomic nervous system
Nervous system that is considered involuntary ANS (autonomic nervous system)
Organs affected by the ANS are considered involuntary and receive nerve cells or fibers from these two divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
Stimulates and speeds up activity and prepares the body for stressful situations; slows the digestive system sympathetic
Operates under normal, nonstressfull conditions and helps restore and slow down activity, thus keeping the body in balance parasympathetic
How many pairs of spinal nerves extend from the spinal cord and are distributed to the muscles and skin of the trunk and limbs? 31-pairs
The primary structural unit of the nervous system; is composed of a cell body and nucleus neuron or nerve cell
Nerve fibers that extend from the nerve cell that receive impulses from other neurons. dendrites
Sends impulses away from the cell body to other neurons axon
Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain; touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure sensory or afferent nerves
These nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and recieve messages. mixed nerves
An automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor. reflex
Organs affected by the ANS are considered involuntary and receive nerve cells or fibers from these two divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
Which nerves activate the muscles and sensory structure of the head and neck, including skin, membranes, eyes and ears cranial nerves
How many cranial nerves are there? 12-cranial nerves
Which is the largest cranial nerve? fifth cranial nerve (aka) trifacial or trigeminal
The chief sensory nerve of the face that serves as the motor neve of the muscles of the mouth that control chewing fifth cranial nerve (aka) trifacial or trigeminal
Name the three branches of the fifth cranial nerve. 1) opthalmic, 2) mandibular, and 3) maxillary
Nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull auriculotemporal
Nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth infraorbital
Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose infratrochlear
Nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin mental nerve
Nerve that affects the point of the lower side of the nose nasal
Nerve that affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow and upper eyelid supraorbital
Nerve that affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose supratrochlear
Nerve that affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek/molar. zygomatic
The chief motor nerve of the face is this nerve; emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the face and muscles of the neck. seventh (facial) cranial nerve
Nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth buccal
Nerve that affects the side of the neck and the platysma muscle cervical
Nerve that affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip mandibular nerve
Nerve that affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull posterior auricular
Nerve that affects the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid and upper part of the cheek temporal nerve
Nerve that affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek zygomatic
Nerve located at the side of the neck; affects front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone. cervical cutaneous
Nerve located at the side of the neck; affects face, ears, neck and parotid gland greater auricular nerve
Nerve located in the back of the head; affects the scalp and as far up as the top of the head greater occipital nerve
Nerve located at the base of the skull; affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear smaller (lesser) occipital nerve
A sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers digital nerve
A sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand radial nerve
A smaller sensory-nerve that, with its branches, supplies the arm and hand median
A sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand ulnar nerve
The cardiovascular or vascular system that controls steady circulation to the blood thru the body by means of the heart and blood vessels (veins and arteries) circulatory system
Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries for the distribution of blood throughout the body. vascular system
The body's pump; muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps blood moving w/ in the circulatory system; beats 72 - 80 times per minute, weighs approx. 9 oz, and is located in the chest cavity. heart
Membrane that encloses the heart pericardium
The interior of the heart contains how man chambers and valves? 4-chambers and 4-valves
The upper thin-walled chambers of the heart. right and left atrium
The lower thick-walled chambers of the heart. right & left ventricles
Circulation that sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. pulmonary
Circulation that carries oxygenated blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart. systemic or general
Tubelike structures that transport blood to and from the heart, and then to various tissues of the body. blood vessels
Thick-walled muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries; high blood pressure arteries
The largest artery in the body. aorta
Minute, thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins; bring nutrients to the cells and carry away waste materials capillaries
Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; carry blood containing waste products from the various capillaries back to the heart; contain valves that prevent backflow. veins
A nutritive fluid flowing through the circulatory system. blood
How many pints of blood in the human body which accounts for 1/10th of its weight; approx 80 % water; is sticky and salty with a normal temperature of 98.6 degrees F. 10-pints
This is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets. blood
Red blood cells are also called this and are produced where? red corpuscles or erthrocytes; red bone marrow
A complex iron protein that gives the blood its bright red color; carry oxygen to the body cells hemoglobin
These,also called leukocytes, perform the function of destroying disease causing germs. white blood cells or white corpuscles
Much smaller than red blood cells, these contribute to the blood-clotting process to stop bleeding. platelets (aka) thrombocytes
The fluid part of the blood in which the red band white blood cells and platelets flow; about 90% water and contains proteins, sugars and oxygen plasma
What is the main function of plasma? to carry food and secretions to the cells and to take carbon dioxide away from the cells
The main source of blood supply to the head, face and neck. common cartid arteries
Where are the common cartid arteries located? on either side of the neck
The common cartid arteries is each divided into an internal and external branch called... internal cartoid and external cartoid arteries
This artery supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear internal cartoid artery
This artery supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck and side of the head; is divided into several branches external cartoid artery
This external maxillary artery supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth and nose. facial artery
This artery supplies blood to the chin and lower lip. submental artery
This artery supplies blood to the lower lip inferior labial artery
This artery supplies blood to the side of the nose angular artery
This artery supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose superior labial artery
This artery is a continuation of the external carotid artery and supplies blood to the muscles of the front,side, and top of the head superficial temporal artery
This artery supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids frontal artery
This artery supplies blood to the side and crown of the head parietal artery
This artery supplies blood to the skin and masseter transverse facial
This artery supplies blood to the temples middle temporal artery
This artery supplies blood to the front part of the ear anterior auricular artery
This artery supplies blood the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown occipial artery
This artery supplies blood to the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear posterior auricular artery
This artery supplies blood to the upper eyelids and forehead supraorbital
This artery supplies blood to the muscles of the eye infraorbital
This system is made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels. lymphatic/immune system
This systems protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing micororganisms as well as to drain the tissue space of excess interstitial fluids to the blood; carries waste and impurities away from the cells lymphatic/immune system
A group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body. endocrine system
Specilized organs that remove certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds. glands
Name the two main types of glands of the endocrine system? exocrine and endocrine glands
Duct glands that produce substance that travels throgh small, tubelike ducts. exocrine glands
Sweat (sudoiferous) and oil glands belong to this group. exocrine or duct glands
Ductless glands that release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream, which in turn influence the welfare of the entire body. endocrine glands
Chemicals that are released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body are called... hormones
Hormones that stimulate functional activity or secretion in other parts of the body include... insulin, adrenaline and estrogen
The gland that plays a major role in sexual development, sleep and metablolism. pineal gland
The gland that is the most complex organ of the endocrine system. pituitary
This gland is responsible for almost every physiologic process of the body? pituitary
This gland affects growth, blood pressure, contractions during childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ function, thyroid gland function, the conversion of food to energy (metabolism), and osmolarity regulation of the body pituitary
Gland that controls how quickly the body burns energy (metabolism). thyroid gland
Gland that makes proteins and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones; releases human growth hormone (HGH). thyroid gland
Gland that regulates blood calcuim and phosphorous levels so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly. parathyroid gland
Gland that secretes enzyme-producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins and fats. pancreas
Cells within the pancreas that control insulin and glucagons producetion Langerhans cells
Glands that secrete about 30 steroid hormones and control metabloic processes of the body, including the flight or fight response. adrenal glands
Glands that function in sexual reproduction as well as determining male and female sexual characeristics. ovaries and testes
Also called the gastrointestinal system, this system is resposible for changing food into nutrients and waste. digestive system
Chemicals that change certain foods into a form that can be used by the body. digestive enzymes
Food, in its soluable form, is transported by the bloodstream to what parts of the body? cells and tissues
Eating or taking food into the body is called? ingestion
Moving food along the digestive tract is known as? peristalsis
The breakdown of food by mechanical and chemical means is known as? digestion
Digested food that enters into the circulatory systems for transportation to the tissues and cells is know as? absorption
Elimination from the body is known as? defecation
The system that is responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter. excretory
The organ that excretes urine. kidney
The organ that discharges bile. liver
The organ that eliminates perspiration. skin
The organ that eliminates decomposed and undigested food. large intestine
The organ that releases carbon dioxide. lungs
The system that enables breathing (respiration) and consists of the lungs and air passages. respiratory system
Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxied during one breathing cycle. lungs
This system is located within the chest cavity and is protected on both sides by the ribs. respiratory system
A muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing. diaphragm
The system that is made up of skin and its various accessory organs. integumentary system
Various organs such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails are present in this system integumentary system
The system that performs the function of reproducing and perpetuating the human race. reproductive system
The sex hormones, testosterone in males and estrogen in females affect what part of the integumentary system? skin
Created by: heaneyl on 2009-03-28



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