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Growth To increase in size
Response to react to a change in the environment
Adaptation any characteristic that allows organisms to survive
Movement to be able to go from place to place
Metabolism all changes in an organism that use or release energy
How many charecteristict of life do you need to be considered living 6
Locomotion external
Transport internal
Sexual 2 parents
asexual one parent
ocular lens what you look into
revolving nosepiece holds and changes all of microscipe powers
high power lens highest power
low power lowest lens
Stage clips holds slides into place
body tube reflect the image to see
Stage support the slide
Diaphragm regulates light
Projection lens project the image
Base support the microscope
Arm conncects base and barrell
Coarse focus raises and lower stage for focusing
Fine focus slightly moves the stage to sharpen the image
power switch turn the illimination on and off
Scanning 4
Ocular 10
low objective 10
High 40
Total magnification Multiplying objective and ocular
4 steps of putting the microscope away stage all the way down, switch objectives to scanning, wrap the cord around the base, put the cover on
3 parts of the cell theory All organims are made of one or more cells, a cell is the smallest unit of life that carries out all 6 processes of life, all cells come from other cells
Plasma membrane/ cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell, protects the cell, and maintains the shape
Cytoplasm Jelly-like fluid that fills the cell and supports the organells, helps maintain its shape
Nucleus Controls the cell like a brain and contains chromosomes
Nuclear envelope/ nuclear membrane found in plant and animal cells, cotrols what enters and leaves the nucleus
Mitochondria changes chemicals unto energy during respiration considered the powerhouse of the cell
Ribosome cells make proteins for the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum tube-like transport system. The subway of the cell. There are 2 types smooth and rough
Golgi Apparatus packages and sends out protiens UPS of the cells
Vacuole stores water food and waste for the cell Larger in plant cells
Cell wall Only found in plant cells. Surround the cell membrane of the plant cell and it prvides its shape
Chloroplast only found in plant cells. Turns lighter energy into chemical energy during the process of photosynthesis
lysosome store digestive enzymes for the cell to break down food
Centrioles only found in animal cells aids in cell division in animal cells during mitosis
Permeable lets all materials pass through
impermeable does not let anything pass through
Cell membrane Semi permeable
Cell membrane made off lipids and proteins
Cell membrane The protiens allows large molecules to pass through
Passive transport
Diffusion when passive transport goes to high to low concentration through gaps in liquid molecules
Osmosis a type of diffusuon that involves water
Active transport Requires energy, goes low the high concentration, materials pass through carrier protiens
Graduated cylinder read in the middle of the water line
Unit for a object that is rectangular CM3
Main energy source for cells Glucose
Realtionship between the amount of glucose and ATP More glucose the cell can obtain the more ATP produces
Can starch be used by cells No it must be broken down
Fermentation Glucose enters the cell and reacts with cytoplasm to create 2 ATP. The waste products are organic molecule and CO2 they leave the cell
Respiration Aerobic Glucose enter cell react with cytoplasm, breaks down,=2 ATP. CO2 waste leaves cell. Organic molecule created bonds with O2. Oxygen+ org. mol. creates, trasnported to mictochondiran. Them broken down and 32 ATp goes . the waste prodcuts CO2 + H2o will h
Indicator a substance that is used to visually show a change in color when in the presence of alother substance
Number of cells produced when a cell goes through division 2
Why go through cell division to grow and replace injured or worn out cell
Interphase Active time between cell division, most of a cells life, makes protiens/ATP, At end DNA is copied to prepare for mitosis
Phrophase DNA form strands(Chromosomes) Centrioles move to oposite end, Nuclear mebrane dissapears, Spindle fibes stretch between Centrioles, chromosomes attach to fibers
MEtaphase Chromosomes line up in middle of the cell
Anapase Doubled chromosomes sepearate fibers shorten and Chromatids move to oopposite side
Chromatids Single Chromosomes
Telophase FIbers dissapear, Nuclear envelipe forms around each new nuclues, Organels and cytoplasm move to eather side, cell pinches in half
Cytokinesis Cell pinches in half
PMAT Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase telophase
Relationship between daughter cell and Parent identical
Aboitic factors Water, soil, temperature, light, and inorganic subsrtances
Biotic factors plants animals monerans protists and fungi
Decompose Bacterican and Fungi
Symboisis Commensalism, mitualism ,and parasitism
Where does translocation occur/ what is it The movement of substances within and plant, it occurs in roots, stem, leaves and anywhere else substances move
How does a plant store extra energy Strach
Formula for photy sythesis 6CO2+6H2O+GO2
Different parts of Mesophyl Pallisade an spongy
Palisade Dense layer contain chlorplast
Spongy Contaisn space for gas and water exchange
Decomposition Bacterica decompose plants and animals releasing nitrogen back into the atmosphere and earth
Ecological succesion One community is replaced by another
Aqutic biome Fresh water, no salt, pond rivers etc, lilly pads frogs etc
Terrestrial biome Deciduoious seasonl temoerature avergae rain fall NY states plants animals etc
5 principas of genetocs
3 mechanims used by the body to maintain hemeostatis electro-chemical signals, Negative feedback mechanisms, and lock and key
enzymes chemical protiens in the body that assist or speed up chemical ractions
Sallest to largest cells, tissues, organis, organs systems
Muscle tissue moves the body and substances within the bodu- biceps triceps, heart and arterial walls
Nerve tissue transmitts messages throught the body found in brain, nerve cord, and neurons
Epithelial tissue covers surface of your body found in skin lining, and digestive system
connective tissue connects or holds together parts of the body found in bone, cartilage, fat, blood, tendons, and ligaments
Skin protects us from harmful substances, regulates water loss through pores, contains cappilares, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures
Dermis protects us from harmful substances, regulates water loss through pores
Epidermis Forms true skin contains capillaries, nerves, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures
Skeltal system support the body gives it shape prtoetcs organs, enables movment, stores calcium and phosphorus and produce blood cells
Ligaments connect bone to bone
Tendons bone to muscle
5 basic joints Sutures, Pivot joint, ball and socket, Hinge Joint , ND gliding joint
Carbihydrates provide energy
Fat provides energy for the body when carbohydrates are not available.
Proteins provides energy for the body when fats and carbohydrates are not available
circulatory system transport nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and transport waste products away from body cells
Pulmonary circulation carries blood to and from the lung
Systemic Circulation. transport blood to and from the rest of the body
Arteries arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and they carry mostly oxygen-rich blood
Veins, blood vessels that carry blood to the heart,
Capillaries Capillaries are the tiniest of blood vessels which join arteries and veins they are also the site of gas exchange.
Plasma help blood cells move.
Platelets help repair injured blood cells
Red blood cells carry oxygen
White blood cells fight infections and diseases
Respitory system provide conducting passageways in order for oxygen to be used in the body to release energy, purify,humidify,and warms incoming air, and lastly filters out dust from the air
Capilliares release CO2 into alveili and then CO2 is exhaled
Liver removes used amino acids
Kidney helps remove waste
nervous system. The major functions of the nervous system is to sense the environment around us, to learn and apply what is learned, to recall memories, and to regulate the body's metabolism
entral nervous system controls the center of the body containing the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous system a network of nerves that branch off the central nervous system and connect with organs of the body.
Cerebrum interprets sensory information, the center of thinking, and the area for learning, creativity, memory, and decision making
cellebelum coordinates movement of the body
hypothalamus regulate hormone production in the body and regulates body temperature.
Medulla brain and spinal cord and meet, controls the functions of internal organs, and controls some of your reflexes.
reflex arc stimulus hits a receptor, the stimulus travels down the sensory neurons to the gray matter in the spinal cord. The spinal cord creates a response and sends it down the motor Neurons to the effector.
endocrine system regulate body activities through the uses of chemical known as hormones.
Diploid sperm and the eggs each contributed half the number of chromosomes to create a whole.
zygote sperm and eggs combine during fertilization.
haploid ells go through two divisions which reduces the number of chromosomes to half.
two different types of white blood cells? T cells and B cells.
immune response? T cell recognizes a virus, some T cells attack, some T cells attack B cells, then lastly antibodies destroy pathogens.
Lymph Node contains white blood cells and help destroy harmful organisms,
Thymus matures and store T-cells,
Bone Marrow produces t cell and red blood cells
spleen clearspit foreign bodies and worn out cell
Created by: Ebatten