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2016 2nd Sem Final

Vocab for the semester exam

Acid a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates and turns blue litmus paper red
Base A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery and turns red litmus paper blue.
pH Scale A range of numbers used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Neutralization A reaction of an acid with a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as teh starting solutions were. Yields water and a salt
reaction the transformation of one set of chemical substances into another
salt an ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.
Wave A disturbance that transfers energy from place to place
vibration a repeated back and forth or up and down motion
longitudinal wave a wave that move the medium parallel to the direction in which the wave is traveling
energy the ability to do work
medium material through which a wave travels
mechanical wave a wave that requires a medium through which to travel
crest the highest part of a transverse wave
transverse wave a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
surface wave a wave that occurs at the surface between two mediums
trough the lowest part of a transverse wave
compression the part of the longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are close together
rarefaction (longitudinal waves) the part of the longitudinal wave where the particles of the medium are farthest apart
amplitude the maximum distance the particles of a medium move away from their rest positions as a wave
wavelength the distance between two corresponding parts of a wave
frequency the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
Hertz (Hz) unit of measurement for frequency
Doppler Effect the apparent change in frequency of a sound as the source moves in relation to the listener
reflection the bouncing back of a wave when it hits a surface that it cannot pass thorugh
refraction the bending of a wave as it passes into a different medium
cell the basic unit of structure and function in living things
cell theory a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
animal cell a cell that does not have a cell wall and is found in animals
plant cell a cell that has a cell wall and chloroplast
organelle a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within a cell
active transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
passive transort the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
chloroplasts a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
nucleus a cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all of the cell's activities
mitochondria rod-shaped cells structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's function
photosynthesis the process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make food
cell respiration the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
punnett square a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
dominant an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present. Needs two recessive alleles to see the trait.
allele the different forms of a gene
trait a characteristics that an organism can pass on to its offsprings thorough its genes
homozygous having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous having two different alleles for a trait