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OPT Musculoskeletal

osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease) abnormal development of type I collagen; blue sclera and opalescent teeth
achondroplasia impaired maturation of cartilage in growth plate; major cause of dwarfism
osteopetrosis (marble bone disease) deficient osteoclast activity so defective bone remodeling and pancytopenia
osteoporosis increased porosity of skeleton from reduced bone mass so fragile; related to reduced estrogens
Paget disease (osteitis deformans) bursts of osteoclast resorption, osteoblast deposition and cellular exhaustion; net effect is a gain in bone mass but new bone is weak -possibly due to a paramyxovirus
monostotic Paget disease bone lesion confined to a single bone
polyostotic Paget disease bone lesion in numerous bones
mosaic pattern histological feature of Paget disease, loose interstitium that is very vascular
cotton-wool pattern radiographic pattern of Paget disease, radiolucent and radiopaque areas
osteomyelitis infection that spreads to medullary spaces of bone, often Staphylococcus aureus
acute suppurative osteomyelitis type of osteomyelitis, treat by draining and giving antibiotics
chronic suppurative osteomyelitis type of osteomyelitis, infection causing fibrosing reaction so treat by surgery and antibiotics
fibrous dysplasia replacement of localized bone by proliferation of fibrous tissue and unorganized woven bone
monostotic fibrous dysplasia involves single bone, begins in childhood and stops at puberty
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia without endocrine involvement (Jaffe syndrome) multiple, unilateral bones affected;some cafe-au-lait pigmentation
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in association with endocrinopathies (McCune-Albright syndrome) melanin pigmentation of skin (cafe-au-lait), majority of bones affected unilaterally and hormone issues
Chinese characters appearance of histological pattern in fibrous dysplasia; fibrous CT with intermixed woven bone
ground glass radiographic appearance of ill-defined increased radiopacity
Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) primary malignant small round cell tumors of bone and soft tissue; patients 10-15, arise in medullary cavity and produce expansile mass with onion-skin pattern
giant cell tumor (osteoclastoma) neoplasm of osteoclast-like giant cells with intermixed mononuclear mesodermal cells; most arise in epiphysis of long bones and cause local pain
metastatic disease most common malignancies in bone from prostate, breast, kidney, and lung cancers; prostate metastasis can be radiopaque
osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) most common joint disorder; degeneration of articular cartilage with bone changes occurring as a secondary effect, does not begin with inflammation but causes it
fibrillation vertical fissures in cartilage cap in early stages of osteoarthritis
eburnation when entire bone becomes exposed and is thick and polished
osteophytes small bony outgrowths that cause more inflammation
Heberden nodes nodular enlargement, especially in fingers of osteophytes in osteoarthritis
rheumatoid arthritis systemic, chronic autoimmune disease that attacks the joints
pannus inflammatory hyperplasia of synovial membrane; eventually fills the entire joint space
rheumatoid nodules subcutaneous nodules in areas of mechanical pressure; necrotic collagen surrounded by granulomatous inflammation
rheumatoid factor autoantibodies that attach to host's own IgG antibodies
gout tissue accumulation of excessive amounts of uric acid that crystallizes
primary (idiopathic) gout gout of unknown cause or an inborn metabolic issue
secondary gout cause is known or gout is not the main disorder; often in chemo patients and renal failure
acute arthritis precipitation of urate crystals in synovial fluid and membranes; in big toe and cooler joints
chronic arthritis secondary to repeated acute attacks; crystals penetrate the bone and tissue and persist
tophus deposit of urate crystals, diagnostic of gout
intercritical gout asymptomatic period in between attacks
myasthenia gravis autoimmune disease of depletion of acetylcholine receptors; weakness, fatigue of muscles and thymic issues
ptosis dropping of eyelids in myasthenia gravis
diplopia double vision in myasthenia gravis
Duchenne muscular dystrophy X-linked recessive disorder, absence of dystrophin (holds myocyte together)
pseudohypertrophy replacement of lost muscle cells with fibrofatty tissue
fibrous tissue tumor fibromatosis, fibrous histiocytoma -fibrosarcoma
adipose tissue tumor lipoma -liposarcoma
striated muscle tumor rhabdomyoma -rhabdomyosarcoma
smooth muscle tumor leiomyoma -leiomyosarcoma
peripheral nerve tumor neurofibroma, neurilemoma -neurofibrosarcoma
blood vessel tumor hemangioma -angiosarcoma
lymphatic vessel tumor lymphangioma -lymphangiosarcoma
bone forming cell tumor osteoma, osteoblastoma -osteosarcoma
cartilage tumor chrondroma -chondrosarcoma
interstitial tumor fibromatosis-fibrosarcoma hemangioma-angiosarcoma neurofibroma-neurosarcoma
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold