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Surface Waters

Marine Waters 96.5% of Earth's water; 1.351 billion km of global water supply
Seawater Average salinity: 35ppt (35 g/kg); varies slightly depending on pressure, temperature and location
Frozen Occurences Ice Caps Ice Sheets Polar Ice Caps Glaciers Permafrost Snow & Sleet
Frozen Waters 1.74% of water on Earth is currently in the solid state, which accounts for 69.5% of all fresh water resources on Earth (freeing water pushes out any salt)
Stored Water The amount of water stored in the solid state has changed drastically over geologic time: Pleistocene Glacial Maxima Snowball Earth Cretaceous epicontinental flooding
Surficial Ice Deposits Ice Caps, Ice Sheets, Polar Ice Caps and Glaciers
Ice Caps Cover an area <50,000km
Ice Sheets Cover an area >50,000km
Polar Ice Caps No size limitation, but must be located at very high latitudes
Glaciers Large, slow-moving mass of ice
Permafrost (Subsurface Ice Deposits) soil that remains below the freezing point for more than two years, where water remains in a solid state; persists in high latitude regions
Surface Waters Lakes, Soil, Marshes, Rivers, Plants, Animals; 0.01% of total water - available for use; 0.4% of fresh water sources
Runoff Overland Flow Streams Rivers Lakes Deltas
Evaporation Change from liquid to gas phase of water as a result of heating (sublimation: solid to gaseous phase)
Transpiration The evaporation of water via plants the exposed aerially (10% of atmospheric water vapor)
Precipitation The condensation of water vapor into a liquid (rain) or solid state (snow/hail)
Water Residence Time How long water stays in a certain reservoir or system
Biospheric 1 week
Atmospheric 1-5 weeks
River 2 weeks
Streams 1-10 years
Lakes 10 years
Soil 2 weeks
Ice Caps/Glaciers 1000 years
Oceans/Seas 4000 years
Groundwater 2 weeks-10,000 years
Running Water Water flows down gradient in response to gravity; water attempts to reach the lowest energy state possible
Potential Energy Of the water is related to the elevation at which the water occurs
Kinetic Energy Of the water is related to the motion of the water
Sheet Flow Water flows down gradient over flat gentle slopes; water flow forms a continuous film across land surface
Channel Flow Water flow is a confined to a linear trough-like depressions Includes: Rills, Gullies, Brooks, Creeks, Streams, Rivers Classification is based on size and is subjection
Fluid Flow Flow behavior depends on the amount of energy in the system; if the infiltration rate into the ground is exceeded by precipitation rate, then surface flow will occur
Laminar Flow Flow is constant in one direction; little or no mixing of fluid as it is transported down gradient; parallel line flow of path
Turbulent Flow Complex flow paths such that water can be moving in any direction at any instant in time, but as a whole fluid move down gradient; extensive mixing of fluid; Inter
Turbulence Created through the irregularities in the channel or bed and the velocity of the water
Gradient Slope of the channel bed as drop in elevation over a given distance; change in vertical distance/horizontal distance; generally steeper in upstream direction than in downstream direction; higher the gradient the greater the potential energy in the system
Velocity Speed at which fluid is moving; V= distance travelled/time required to travel; Varies across channel width and depth due to resistance (friction) b/w fluid walls/bed
Velocity Increases Due to fluid acceleration, channel shape/composition, and the joining of multiple channels, thus increasing total volume of fluid
Discharge Volume of fluid to be transported; D=V of fluid X the cross sectional area of the fluid in the channel; Increases down gradient as multiple channels converge
Dissolved Load Solution of rock and transport of ions
Bed Load (Solid load) Larger material is transported by traction and saltation
Suspended Load (Solid load) Small material "float" during transport
Abrasion (Solid load) Weathering occurs through the physical impact of solid load with the channel walls and floor
Hydraulic Abrasion (Solid load) Physical weathering due to friction between fluid and rock
Overland Flow Flow produced when the ground becomes saturated or when the rate of rainfall exceed infiltration rates
Overland Flow Commonly Occurs: Arid Regions, Urban areas, Deforested Regions
Braided Channels Intricate network of sand/gravel bars and channels
Bars Deposited primarily as bed-load; deposited during intense flow, but divide channel during normal flow
Braided Channels Occur: In regions where sediment supply exceeds transport capacity; Common in arid, semiarid and arctic regions
Meandering Channels Single channels that broadly curve along their flow path
Cut Banks Regions of faster water flow on outer edge of meanders where erosion dominates
Point Bars Regions of slower water flow on inner edge of meanders where deposition dominates
Oxbow Lakes Abandoned meanders that were cut off from main channel
Floodplain Deposits Sedimentation that occurs when the fluid capacity of the channel is exceed, primarily during floods
Fluid Velocity decreases as it exceeds channel capacity; spreads out and drops its solid load as velocity decreases
Natural levees Form at edge of channel where coarse grained sediments drop out as velocity decreases rapidly
Deltas Form as channels reach large bodies of water, primarily oceans; sediments are deposited as fluid velocity of decreases
Progradation Occurs as sediments build outward through distributary channels
Delta Types: Stream Dominated Wave Dominated Tide Dominated
Alluvial Fans Similar features to deltas that develop on land that primarily form in arid regions
Alluvial Fan Channel Flow Channelized flow in high gradient regions rapidly spreads out and decrease velocity as mountain slopes decrease
Alluvial Fan Deposits Deposits are usually loose and unstable because of limited vegetation
Drainage Systems Region of land over which surface waters drain to a central point during a precipitation event
Drainage Basins Divides (topographic highs) divide drainage basins; range in size from local regions to entire continents
Drainage Patters Dendritic Rectangular Trellis Radial Deranged
Base Level The lowest level to which any channel can erode; control the erosion and deposition by changing hydrologic gradient
Ultimate Base level Sea level; Ultimate base levels shifts with changes in sea level
Basel Level Shifting Can shift as: Resistant beds are breached Sedimentation occurs Subsidence Changes in ultimate base levels
Graded Profiles Develop as gradient is smoothed over time
Sea Level Lowstand Rivers cut down through the rock to reach the new, lower base level, creating incised valleys
Sea Level Highstand Rivers fill up the valleys with sediment and try to reach the new, higher base level, creating flat floodplains
Base level rise and fall Results in a complex sequence of sediments being deposited on the continental shelf and in fluvial systems
Radial (Early) Stage Downcutting occurs when the stream has excess energy. Deep, narrow, v-shaped valleys form
Intermediate Stage Lateral erosion widens valleys often with the assistance of mass wasting; Headward erosion extends valley length and often capture channels (stream piracy); valley broaden
Aerial Flooding When more water is supplied than can either run off or infiltrate into the ground in areas not connected to a stream channel; Caused by: Shallow water tables Intense rain or snow melt Impermeable Surfaces
Riverine (channel) flooding When more water is supplied than the river can hold; when a river overtakes its banks; Caused by: Excess rain upstream Stream blockage downstream Excess precipitation and intense runoff
Flash floods Rapid flooding of of low lying areas over less than 6 hours
Controlling floods Artificial impoundments are often constructed to prevent flooding: Levees, Dams, Floodways, floodwalls, reforestation
Advanced (Late) Stage Meander streams develop with well-developed stream terraces
Created by: FaithRaquel2015