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Subdiscipline of geology, which represents the study of the rocks (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic). Petrology
Branch of geology that is the study of the successions of layers and bodies of rocks in the Earth crust. Stratigraphy
Subdiscipline of geology, which represents the study of sediments and their deposition. Sedimentology
Science is transformed into ___________________ by not fully accepting its unlimited field of research and lack of directionality. Pseudoscience
The modern heliocentric model of the Solar System was given by ______ Nicolaus Copernicus
e Solar System is situated in this branch of the Milky Way. Cygnus-Orion
The beginning of the known Universe expansion is dated at circa ____________. 13.7 - 13.8 billion years
The source of the Sun radiated energy is given by ___________. Thermo-nuclear reactions
Most of the Sun consists of the elements __________ and ___________. Helium, Hydrogen
The vast depression zones at the Moon surface are referred to as ____________ (hint: relief forms opposite to highlands). Marae
_________________ concentrates most of the Solar System mass (hint: over 98%). Sun
Which of the following planets does not have a core consisting of molten matter? Jupiter
These celestial bodies of the Solar System are often informally referred to as “flying mountains”. Asteroids
Meteorites having traces of organic matter in their mass are known as ______________. Carbonaceous chondrites
The most frequent metal associated with iron in the iron meteorites is ______________. Nickel
______________ is the largest terrestrial planet. Earth
A silicate-dominated meteorite that has no chondrules in its mass is known as ____________. Achondrite
Planet of the Solar System other than the Earth that yielded compelling evidence to demonstrate the existence of free water at the surface during its past. Mars
First celestial bodies formed according to the Solar Nebula Theory from the matter concentrated in the concentrical rings around the cloud centre are the _______________. Protoplanets
This kind of celestial body or agglomeration of matter is the starting structure in the Solar Nebula Theory. Nebula
Birth of Sun (as star!) is considered when ______________. Thermo-nuclear reactions started in the protosun
The radiation flux from the Sun is known as _______________. Solar Wind
The point on Earth’s surface directly above an earthquake’s focus is referred to as __________. Epicenter
The Mohorovichich discontinuity is the boundary between ______________________. Mantle and crust
What continent or subcontinent was not part of Gondwana? Europe
The asthenosphere is situated between ________ and _________. Lithosphere and mesosphere
Tectonic plate that does not have a continent on it. Pacific Plate
The physical state of the Earth’s inner core is _________. Liquid but behave as a solid
__________ are the dominant rocks in the oceanic crust. Basalts
Earth internal structure is best described as ________ Layered
_____________ is the dominant element on Earth. Iron
______________ is the dominant gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen
Planet of the Solar System other than the Earth that has well-developed ice caps. Mars
____________ is the only satellite of Jupiter on which volcanic activity was observed. Io
Jovian planet’s general appearance is best described as _____________. Gaseous
The nearby layers in the graphite structure are bonded by ______________ bonds. Van der Waals
_________ is an example of mineraloid Opal
Organic minerals are formed mostly as a result of ______________. Bacterial precipitation
The cause of the different physical properties of diamond and graphite is given by ___________. Different crystal structures
What polygons define the atoms of carbon in the planes of the graphite crystal structure? Hexagons
A combination between a metallic element and sulphur is known as __________ Sulfide
Oxide with excellent magnetic properties Magnetite
The most frequent sulfide is ________ Pyrite
_________ is the most frequent carbonate mineral. Calcite
A relatively rare variety of pyrite occurs as ______________ minerals. Dodecahedral
Silicate group that presents the crystal structure with silica tetrahedra bonded in double chains Sorosilicates
Silicates with the crystal structure consisting of a 3D network of silica tetrahedra are known as ____________. Tectosilicates
The physical state of magma is __________. A combination of liquid, solid and gaseous substances
The texture of an igneous rock in which the whole rock mass is composed of large-sized crystals, which are visible with the unaided eye. Phaneritic
The finest material released in the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Volcanic Ash
Rocks with this texture are considered at the boundary between igneous and sedimentary domains. Fragmental
Larger minerals, which are included in the microcrystalline mass of a phaneritic igneous rock (i.e., ground mass) are referred to as________. Phenocrysts
Occurrences of pillow basalts are indicative for _______. Submarine lava flows
The mass of microcrystalline rock in the porphyritic texture is referred to as ___________. Ground mass
Volcanic ejecta without incandescent substances in their mass are known as _______________. Pyroclastic flows
Vesicular basalts are indicative for ____________lava flows. high-viscosity
Natural phenomena through which material from Earth interior is brought up to the surface. Volcanic eruptions
Which of the following processes is not part of the clastic rock formation cycle? Rock melting
The source of the solid particles in suspension in the Earth atmosphere. -Compaction & cementation processes -Wind erosion of pre-existent rocks
Type of weathering characterized by formation of new minerals that have a different composition than the pre-existing, weathered ones. Chemical weathering
The ____________ is the smallest unit of an element. Atom
The total number of protons in the atomic nucleus is known as ____________. Atomic number
Artificial diamonds are not considered minerals in geology because ________________. they are artificially manufactured
Minerals with the same chemical composition and different crystal structures are known as _____ polymorphs
The part of a rock that does not melt in the subsurface magma chamber is referred to as ______________. Residue
_______________ is the final effect of magma cooling. Crystallization