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OPT Respiratory II

pulmonary thromboembolism when blood clots from somewhere else in the body (95% come from the deep leg veins) occlude the pulmonary arteries; seen in prolonged bedrest, birthcontrol
saddle emboli large embolus that lodges on bifurcation of pulmonary artery causing complete blockage
acute cor pulmonale acute dilation of the right heart that can cause sudden death
pulmonary hypertension usually secondary to obstructive lung disease, recurrent pulmonary emboli or heart defects (left to right shunts)
Goodpasture syndrome glomerulonephritis with interstitial pneumonitis; autoimmune disorder that attacks type IV collagen in basement membranes in kidneys and lungs
Wegener granulomatosis (pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis) group of systemic vasculitides affecting the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys
pneumonia any infection involving the lung
bronchopneumonia patchy distribution of inflammation that involves multiple lobes but little damage to the septa; lung is restored after resolution
lobar pneumonia part or all of a lobe is filled with exudate; usually Streptococcus pneumoniae
primary atypical pneumonia infections by viruses and mycoplasma that cause inflammation of the interstitial tissues; inflammatory reaction is contained to the alveoli and the alveolar spaces are free of exudate
Mycoplasma pneumoniae organism that most commonly causes primary atypical pneumonias
Streptococcus pneumoniae aka {pneumococcal pneumonia}; most common cause of community-acquired acute pneumonias and often in lobar pneumonias
lobar pattern of pneumonia 1. congestion 2. red hepatization 3. gray hepatization 4. resolution
fibrinous pleuritis begins during the red hepatization stage and resolves with the infection
bronchopneumotic pattern patchy pattern of inflammation, no pleural involvement
Haemophilus influenzae organism that causes acute exacerbation of COPD
Staphylococcus aureus organism that causes nosocomial pneumonia and follows some viral respiratory infections
Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram- organism that causes bacterial pneumonia in chronic alcoholics
Legionella pneumophila agent of {Legionnaire's disease}; lives in artificial water containment and is inhaled, resistant to many antibiotics
Nosocomial pneumonia hospital acquired pneumonias
Pseudomonas aeruginosa common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections
aspiration pneumonia occurs in patients that aspirate gastric contents causing infection
lung abscess area of suppurative necrosis in lung parenchyma that forms large cavities; anaerobic bacteria from the mouth can form these
chronic pneumonia localized lesion in immunocompromised usually with granulomatous inflammation
Mycobacterium tuberculosis causative agent in chronic pneumonias
tuberculosis communicable disease caused by {Mycobacterium tuberculosis}; usually an asymptomatic pulmonary infection
tuberculin (Mantoux) test detects infection of M. tuberculosis using the allergenic hypersensitivity reaction to tubercular antigens
purified protein derivative (PPD) injected intracutaneously and induces visible induration if positive
caseous necrosis central necrosis of cheesy necrotic debris
caseating granulomatous inflammation type of inflammation seen in tuberculosis and chronic pneumonias
primary tuberculosis develops in non-sensitized, previously unexposed people, almost always by inhaling the organism
Ghon focus tubercle in the lung
Ghon complex tubercles in lungs and lymph nodes
progressive primary tuberculosis occurs when primary tuberculosis progresses without interruption; seen in HIV patients, lymphohematogenous dissemination is a dreaded complication
secondary tuberculosis reactivation of a primary lesion when the host is weakened
cavitation large areas of lung necrosis from continuously growing tubercles
tuberculous pneumonia tuberculosis that spreads to involve large areas of the lungs
miliary tuberculosis systemically disseminated tuberculosis that occurs once blood vessels become involved
scrofula involvement of neck lymph nodes by tuberculosis
bronchogenic carcinoma leading cancer death in industrialized countries; from cigarette smoking
non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lung cancer best treated by surgery; includes squamous cell carcinomas (smokers)
small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lung cancer best treated by chemo because has usually metastasized
mesothelioma pleural tumor due to occupational exposure to asbestos; smoking in conjunction with asbestos does not increase the risk of this cancer
nasopharyngeal carcinoma linked with Epstein-Barr virus, in Chinese people; non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (undifferentiated) is most common type and very radiosensitive
carcinoma of the larynx cancer seen in men, smokers, usually squamous cell carcinomas; persistent hoarseness
Created by: Alexandra Arnold Alexandra Arnold