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biotech chapter 4

cluster 2

purity the absence of impurity
sterility free from microorganims
pyrogenicity the ability to cause fever
use these to increase solubility, so the hydrophobic protein can stay dissolved: small amount of detergent, salts
aggregation is going to happen so, how can we make it not stick to other molecules? Put in another protein: albumin, other proteins, coat surfaces so the recombinant protein will not stick to the surface
add these excipients for pH a buffer to neutralize NOT bicarbonate Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), acetate, and citrate are good
dissolved in oxygen? sealed vial under nitrogen, antioxidant like ascorbic acid
Natural antioxidant glutathione
how do you make glutathione? use three peptides: glutamine, cystine, glycine
which one of the three amino acids in glutathione is the antioxidant cystine because of the sulfur group
Preservatives used as excipients bacteriostatic stuff (inhibit growth but does not kill), mercury compound, phenol, beta hydroxy benzoic acids, alcohol
hydration excipients are used for what? to stabilize the protein
hydration excipients: polyethylene glycol, other poly alcohol, sugars (dextrose), and salts
substances or containers to which proteins in solution may adhere to container that is glass (hydrophobic) plastic, rubber stopper, almost any surface is hydrophobic
1st step in freeze drying freeze the solution
2nd step in freeze drying primary drying (begin the sublimation)
primary drying most of the water comes off now, use low pressure, and maintain temperature, have to slowly add heat to maintain the temperature
freeze the solution ice crystals form
3rd step in freeze drying secondary drying- that last little water needs to come off
secondary drying maintain the pressure, heat up the sample slowly
some proteins are stored at: room temperature, refrigerator temperature, or even lower temperatures
which of the 3 is going to be the fastest: IM, IV, or SC? IV is the fastest
why might it be bad if IM and SC hold onto the protein and let it go slowly into the bloodstream? because the protein could be exposed to proteases and can be degraded if it is just sitting around
if you do not like needles? rectal, inhalation, buccal, nasal, vaginal, transdermal patch
what is a good route of administration for people who are vomiting rectal
absorption enhancers iontophroesis. it disrupts the skin to let the drug across the skin
iontophroesis electric current to let the proteins into the skin
main goal of absorption enhancers disrupt the skin
open loop delivery methods: the open loop is used because the delivery is continuous not responding to changes in data
what happens if you close the loop? you take the data you are collecting and utilize/analyze it. then make changes based on that analysis. reassess
mechanical pumps (Open loop delivery methods) embed in patients and delivers drug when needed
osmotically driven systems (open loop) put is surgically. give a slow steady release. water pumps out the drug
conjugate a protein into some other molecule (open loop) join with another molecule like polyethylene glycol. it increases the time that the protein stay at the injection site (slowly released)
PLGA- polulactic/polyglycolic acid (open loop) the protein is protected by micro spheres and it stays at the injection site longer
closed loop systems include biosensor, algorithm, pump system
algorithm calculates the required input rate for delivery
monospecific antibodies are identical because... they are produced by one type of immune cell that are all clones of a single parent cell
immunoconjugates are.. antibodies conjugated to a second molecule, usually a toxin like ricin
what are immunoconjugates used for used in immunotherapy and to develop monoclonal antibody therapy as chemotherapy
bispecific monoclonal antibody are manufactured from two separate antibodies to create a molecule with two different binding sites
colloidal particulate carrier systems: liposomes, albumin microspheres, biodegradable polycyanoacrylate nanoparticles, polylactic acid microspheres, LDL
potential advantages of colloidal particulate carrier systems macrophages encapsulate the drug to protect from degradation. they are similar to the rate-controlled delivery methods because they can persist in the blood for hours to days.
disadvantages of colloidal particulate carrier systems they cannot permeate through membranes
Created by: ljamison