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Pathology Final Q4

Abscess localized accumulation of pus.
Acquired presents itself after birth.
Active physiological hyperemia circulatory disorder – excess blood in a body part, resulting from normal everyday healthy body function.
Acute a disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration.
Addison disease disease of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands – form of hypoadrenalism, deficiency of certain adrenal hormones. Digestive disturbances, low blood pressure, dehydration and emaciation. Bronze coloring to the skin – due to hormone imbalance.
Adenocarcinoma a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body. It is defined as neoplasia of epithelial tissue that has glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
Adenoma benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
Albuminuria disease of the kidney – albumin in the urine. Albumin is a protein normally found in the blood and filtered by the kidneys. When the kidneys are working as they should, there may be a very small amount of albumin in the urine. But when the kidneys are da
Allergies having a hypersensitivity to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction.
Amelia absence of one or more limbs.
Amyloidosis aka amyloid disease, waxy starch-like substance deposited into the tissues. Metabolic disorder involving proteins.
Aneurysm disease of the vessels – localized weakening and dilation of an artery wall. It can rupture and result in hemorrhage, depending in the location, can be serious and even fatal.
Anuria disease of the kidney – complete suppression of urine output, indicates total kidney failure.
Aplastic anemia diseases of the blood – primary anemia, virtual stoppage of blood cell production in the bone marrow. Can be related to drugs, chemical agents, radiation; life threatening.
Arteriosclerosis disease of the heart vessels – degenerative condition in which the arteries of the body become hardened, thickened and inelastic as a result of the deposition of calcium in their walls.
Arteritis disease of the vessels – refers to inflammation involving an artery.
Arthritis diseases of the bones and joints – inflammation of a joint (acute or chronic). Results from trauma, tumors, old age, allergic reactions, infectious agents.
Ascites circulatory disorder – edema of the peritoneal cavity.
Asthma lower respiratory disease,form of allergy, hyper secretion of mucous and spasms of the bronchial muscles. Hyper sensitivity to certain antigens triggers an asthma attack.
Atelectasis lower respiratory disease,collapsed lung. Causes can be obstruction of a bronchus, bronchitis, tumor, pyothorax, hydrothorax, pneumothorax, congenital conditions.
Atherosclerosis disease of the vessels – thee formation of fatty deposits, called plaques. Arteries whose walls are hardened and lined with fatty deposits result in high blood pressure, thrombosis, ischemia, and weakened vessels predisposed to rupturing.
Autopsy the examination of the body after death in order to determine cause of death and/or existence of various disease conditions.
Basal cell carcinoma epithelial tissue tumor,malignant, generally occurs on the face.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia male reproductive disease – often associated with hormone imbalance in later years. Main problem is passage of urine. Other problems are hypertrophy of bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis, predisposition to UTI’s.
Cardiomyopathy disease of the heart – associated with congestive heart failure, refers to disease of the heart muscle. May also accompany infectious diseases, hypertrophy of the heart chambers, or chronic alcoholism.
Catarrhal disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body. It can result in a thick exudate of mucus and white blood cells caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes in the head in response to an infection.
Cholecystitis diseases of the gallbladder – inflammation of the gallbladder.
Chrondroma a benign growth of cartilage.
Chronic a disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration.
Cirrhosis disease of the liver – a long term degeneration of the functioning cells of the liver, with a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and scarring. Causes are chronic alcoholism, drugs and toxins, and viral or bacterial infections. Effects of cirrhos
Clinical pathology deals with the laboratory study of, and the performance of standardized tests on, body fluids, and secretions, such as blood and urine tests, or cultures and smears of various types.
Concussion traumatic disease of nervous system – blow to the head that doesn’t cause a fracture, laceration or hemorrhage.
Congenital disease present at or before birth ie-Downs Syndrome
COPD lower respiratory disease,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, an umbrella term for several conditions causing long term interference with normal respiratory exchange of gases; emphysema, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma.
Crohn’s disease a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cushing syndrome disease of the adrenal (suprarenal) glands – form of hyperadrenalism, excess quantities of hormones called glucocorticoids are produced due to a tumor in the gland. Increased blood sugar levels, increase of lips in the blood.
Cystic fibrosis lower respiratory disease,affects those systems with exocrine secretory functions such as the pancreas and sweat glands. Mucus membranes, including those of the respiratory tract are also generally affected. Excess glandular secretion blocks ducts, resu
Cystitis urinary system disease – inflammation of the bladder.
Cysts a sac within or on the body surface containing air or fluid.
Deficiency disease due to lack of dietary or metabolic substance.
Degeneration general term for deterioration of cells within the body due to changes which occur within the cytoplasm of the cells, and which affects their normal functions.
Diagnosis determination of what disease exists.
Dilatation diseases of the heart and vessels – increase in the size of the heart, or a heart chamber, due to the stretching of the muscle fibers in the walls of the chamber. Occurs when the chamber becomes overfilled with blood on a regular basis.
Diverticulitis diseases of the intestines – condition of having one or more diverticula (abnormal sac or pouch in the walls of a hallow organ). Inflammation of diverticula.
Down syndrome A congenital disorder caused by the presence of an extra 21st chromosome and marked usually by moderate to severe mental retardation, short stature, and a flattened facial profile. Also called trisomy 21.
Ecchymosis circulatory and bleeding disorder – larger irregular patches of hemorrhage in the tissues.
Eclampsia the occurrence of seizures during pregnancy, which cannot be attributed to another cause (after the 20th week gestation).
Ectopic pregnancy the implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the normal one in the uterine cavity.
Edema circulatory disorder,excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body. Main causes are heart failure, venous or lymphatic obstruction, increased capillary permeability (due to inflammation), decreased osmotic pressure of plasma proteins.
Empyema aka Pyothorax,lower respiratory disease,inflammatory exudates of the pleura are purulent (pus).
Encephalitis infectious disease of nervous system – inflammation of the brain. Causes are viral encephalitis transmitted by mosquitos, malaria, influenza, measles, typhus fever.
Endemic a disease which exists in a given community all the time.
Endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium.
Endometriosis disease of the reproductive system – endometrial tissue, normally found lining the uterus, is found elsewhere in the pelvic or abdominal area. Complications are pain, swelling and bleeding.
Enteritis diseases of the intestines – inflammation of the small intestine. Common causes are Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli.
Epicarditis inflammation of the epicardium (outer lining of the heart).
Epidemic a disease that affects many members of a given community at the same time.
Epididymitis reproductive/inflammatory disease – inflammation of the epididymitis. Results from an initial infection of gonococcal urethritis.
Epistaxis circulatory disorder – bleeding from the nose.
Erythrocytes a red blood cell that (in humans) is typically a biconcave disc without a nucleus. Erythrocytes contain the pigment hemoglobin, which imparts the red color to blood, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.
Esophagitis diseases of the esophagus and stomach – inflammation of the esophagus.
Etiology study of the cause of a disease.
Exophthalmic goiter another term for Graves’ Disease.
Exudate circulatory disorder – edema which collects around an inflammation site.
Functional the condition or disease in which there is no recognizable change in anatomy.
Gingivitis diseases of the mouth and throat area – inflammation of the gums.
Glioma tumor of the nervous system – malignant tumors involving the neuroglia.
Glomerulonephritis disease of the kidney – inflammation of the glomeruli (a round cluster of interconnected capillaries found in the cortex of a kidney, which remove body waste to be excreted as urine); often associated with Streptococcus pyogenes infection.
Glossitis diseases of the mouth and throat area – inflammation of the tongue.
Glycosuria disease of the kidney – excess sugar in the urine. Often accompanies diabetes mellitus, pancreas not producing insulin, which metabolizes carbs, sugars build up in the bloodstream and spill over into the urinary system.
Gouty arthritis inflammatory disease of bones – hereditary form of arthritis, metabolic problem with uric acid in the body. Builds up in the bloodstream, precipitates out of solution as urate crystals and accumulates around certain joints – foot and knee.
Graves disease disease of the thyroid gland – severe case of hyperthyroidism, aka exophthalmia goiter, bulging eyeballs due to enema of the tissues in the back of the eyesocket.
Gumma an infectious lesion consisting of am central necrotic mass surrounded by an inflammatory zone and fibrous deterioration of the tissues due to tertiary syphilis.
Hemangioma a benign and usually self-involuting tumor of the endothelial cells that line blood vessels that is characterized by increased number of normal or abnormal vessels filled with blood.
Hematemesis circulatory disorder/ diseases of the stomach and esophagus – blood in the vomit or from the stomach; often associated with gastritis.
Hematuria disease of the kidney,blood in the urine. Accompanies glomerulonephritis, kidney infections, tumors, and other urinary system diseases.
Hemopericardium refers to blood in the pericardial sac of the heart.
Hemophilia bleeding disorder – hereditary, greatly prolonged clotting time for blood. Sex-linked inherited disorder; defective gene is on the X chromosome. Affects males, transmitted by females.
Hemoptysis lower respiratory disease – spitting up blood, often associated with TB. Tubercle formation can damage blood vessels.
Hemorrhage circulatory disorder – the escape of blood from the vascular system; due to a break in the walls of the vessel.
Hemorrhoids diseases of the vessels/intestines – varicose veins in the area of the rectum and anal canal. Any condition that puts pressure on the veins in the rectal area can cause this – pregnancy, constipation, tumors, enlarged prostate glands, liver conditions re
Hemothorax collection of blood in the pleural cavities.
Hereditary genetic characteristics transmitted from parent to offspring.
Hernia diseases of the intestines – protrusion of an organ through the walls of the body cavity in which it is contained.
Abdominal hernia tear or weak spot develops in the musculature of the abdominal wall, part of the peritoneum, loop of the intestine, pushes it through this opening.
Inquiral hernia occur in the groin area.
Umbilical hernia occur in infants due to imperfect closure of the opening where the umbilical cord is attached.
Hiatal hernia herniation of part of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
Human growth hormone is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Hydrocele reproductive/inflammatory disease – buildup of edematous fluid in the scrotum, surrounding the testes; may result from improper closure of the opening between the peritoneal cavity and the scrotum.
Hydrocephalus disease of nervous system – water on the brain; blockage to the normal outflow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Hydrosalpinx ,distally blocked fallopian tube filled with serous or clear fluid.
Hydrothorax aka Pleural Effusion,lower respiratory disease,when the fluids collecting in the pleural cavity are more watery (edema).
Hypertrophy diseases of the heart and vessels –increase in the size of the heart (or part of the heart) due to an increase in the size of the muscle fibers. Usually occurs when an increased work load is put upon one or more if the heart chambers.
Hypoadrenalism deficiency of adrenal activity, as in Addison's disease.
Iatrogenic caused by an approved medical treatment or procedure administered by a physician.
Idiopathic no known cause.
Infarction the formation of an area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supply to the area.
Infestation harboring of animal parasites ie-ticks.
Inflammation a tissue reaction to irritation, infection, or injury marked by localized heat, swelling, redness, pain and sometimes loss of function.
Influenza upper respiratory disease,usually called the flu, common viral infection affecting the upper respiratory system; affects the respiratory epithelium, defenses are compromised and there’s a high risk for secondary infection ie-pneumonia.
Intoxication state or condition of being poisoned.
Iron deficiency anemia anemia due to not enough iron.
Kyphosis disease of the bones – refers to an abnormal posterior curvature of the spine ‘humpback’.
Leiomyoma disease of the reproductive system – very common benign fibroid tumors which develop from the smooth muscle fibers in the walls of the uterus.
Leiomysarcoma also referred to as LMS, is a malignant smooth muscle tumor.
Lesion any change produced by disease.
Leukocytes white blood cells.
Leukocytosis diseases of the blood – an increase in the number of circulation white blood cells.
Leukopenia diseases of the blood – decrease in white blood cells.
Lymphocytosis an increase in the number or proportion of lymphocytes in the blood.
Lymphoma malignancy of lymphoid tissue.
Malaria a febrile disease of the blood characterized by chills and fever. It is caused by a protozoan and spread by mosquito bites.
Melanoma epithelial tissue tumor – malignant, moles that have become malignant.
Melanosis abnormal amounts of melanin accumulates in the tissues ie-freckles and moles.
Meningitis infectious disease of nervous system – inflammation of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Causes are hemophilus influenza, streptococcus pnuemoniae, neisseria meningtidis. Organisms that cause this usually reach the meninges by blood or
Morbidity the study of the rate of occurrence of a disease ie-how many people in a given population develop a disease.
Mortality the study of the number of deaths associated with a particular disease.
Myocarditis disease of the heart layer – inflammation of the heart muscle itself.
Myxedema swelling of the skin and underlying tissues giving a waxy consistency, typical of patients with underactive thyroid glands. The more general condition associated with hypothyroidism, including weight gain, mental dullness, and sensitivity to cold.
Necrosis pathological death of a tissue still part of the living organism.
Nephritis disease of the kidney,inflammation of the kidney.
Nephrolithiasis disease of the kidney – formation of kidney stones; stones are called nephroliths or renal calculi. Formation associated with kidney inflammation, dietary problems and hyperparathyroidism (over activity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess produ
Nephrosclerosis disease of the kidney,arteries and arterioles of the kidneys become hardened and sclerotic.
Nosocomial a disease that begins and develops as a result of hospitalization ie-MRSA.
Occulta spina bifida occulta is the mildest form of spina bifida. When someone has this condition, at least one vertebra is malformed, but the nerves and spinal cord are normal and are covered by a layer of skin. Although it is estimated that 5 to 10 percent of t
Oophoritis reproductive/inflammatory disease – inflammation of the ovaries.
Orchitis reproductive/inflammatory disease – inflammation of the testes. Most often a complication of other infectious diseases, especially mumps.
Organic a condition or disease in which there is a change in anatomy.
Osteitis inflammatory diseases of the bones – inflammation of a bone.
Osteoarthritis inflammatory diseases of the bones – very common form of chronic arthritis. More degenerative than inflammatory.
Osteomas disease of the bones – benign tumors of the bone.
Osteomalacia a disease marked by softening of the bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood.
Osteoporosis diseases of the bone – a term referring to the loss of bone density. Bone is porous, brittle and breaks – mostly in women post-menopausal.
Osteosarcoma diseases of the bone – malignant tumors on the bone.
Paget’s disease a chronic disorder that can result in enlarged and misshapen bones. Paget's is caused by the excessive breakdown and formation of bone, followed by disorganized bone remodeling. This causes affected bone to weaken, resulting in pain, misshapen bones, frac
Pancreatitis disease of the pancreas – inflammation of the pancreas. Common causes are gallstone blockage where bile cannot enter the duodenum and is forced into the pancreatic duct, chronic alcoholism, idiopathic.
Pandemic a disease that affects a very large number of the world population.
Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is produced by the 4 parathyroid glands, which reside behind the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. The release of PTH is normally stimulated by low calcium levels in the body. PTH release results in a signal to the bones to rel
Passive hyperemia circulatory disorder – venous drainage from an area is decreased, always pathological and may be expressed as localized (one area) or generalized (whole body).
Pathogenesis the progression of a disease from its cause to its outcome. The course a disease takes.
Pathology the study of disease – specifically the study of the structure and function of the body as it is affected by disease.
Peptic ulcers disease of the esophagus and stomach – ulcers which occur in the stomach and duodenum; the name is derived from the digestive enzyme know as pepsin. Secretion of an excess amount of gastric juices is usually the cause of formation of these.
Peritonitis an inflammation of the peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers most of the abdominal organs. Peritonitis may be localized or generalized, and may result from infection or from a non-infectious process.
Pernicious anemia diseases of the blood – primary anemia, deficiency disease – lack of vitamin B12 (digestive system abnormalities). Characterized by a smooth, red, painful tongue and damage to the nervous system.
Petechiae circulatory disorder – pin-point hemorrhages.
Pharyngitis upper respiratory disease/ diseases of the mouth and throat area,inflammation of the throat (pharynx)
Phlebitis disease of the vessels – inflammation of the veins.
Pigmentation common form of infiltration, occurs when coloring matters pass into the tissues and accumulate causing discolorations.
Platelets a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
Pneumonia lower respiratory disease,inflammation of the lungs with the collection of inflammatory exudates in the alveoli; caused by bacteria, viruses, fungal and protozoan organisms.
Polycystic kidney disease kidneys develop many cysts.
Polycythemia diseases of the blood – increase in the number of blood cells in the body.
Polydactylism more than normal number of digits (fingers or toes).
Polyuria disease of the kidney – passage of excess quantities of urine. Often accompanies diabetes insipidus (disease of the pituitary gland-produces anti-diuretic hormone ADH; which regulates urine ouput).
Prevalence the number of cases of a disease present in a given community at one time.
Primary anemia disease of the blood – decreased production of red blood cells.
Proctitis diseases of the intestines – inflammation of the rectum.
Prolapse a condition where organs, such as the uterus, fall down or slip out of place. It is used for organs protruding through the vagina or the rectum or for the misalignment of the valves of the heart.
Prostatitis reproductive/inflammatory disease – inflammation of the prostate gland. Results from an initial infection of gonococcal urethritis, or urinary tract infection.
Purulent forming or containing pus.
Pyelitis disease of the kidney – inflammation of the renal pelvis, which is the expanded portion of the upper part of the ureter.
Pyloric stenosis narrowing of the opening from the stomach to the first part of the small intestine known as the duodenum, due to enlargement of the muscle surrounding this opening, which spasms when the stomach empties. This condition causes severe projectile non-bilious
Pyosalpinx n accumulation of pus in a fallopian tube.
Rhabdomyoma a benign tumor of striated muscle. Rhabdomyomas may be either "cardiac" or "extra cardiac" (occurring outside the heart). Extracardiac forms of rhabdomyoma are sub classified into three distinct types: (1) Adult type, (2) Fetal type, and (3) Genital typ
Rheumatoid arthritis inflammatory diseases of the bones – chronic arthritis begins as inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule, typically the hands and wrists and spreading – mostly women). Later stages, a joint can be completely destroyed and the artic
Rhinitis upper respiratory disease,inflammation of the nasal passages
Rickets diseases of the bone – softening of bone tissue due to a loss of calcium – childhood disease, diet with a deficiency of vitamin D.
Saccular aneurysm disease of the vessels – bulging, sac-like dilation on the wall of an artery.
Salpingitis reproductive/inflammatory disease – inflammation of the fallopian tubes.
Sarcoma the suffix is used to identify malignancies of non-epithelial tissues, especially various connective and muscle tissue fibers.
Scoliosis diseases of the bones – condition in which the spinal column contains an abnormal lateral curvature.
Sebum an oily secretion of the sebaceous glands.
Secondary anemia disease of the blood – increased loss or destruction of red blood cells.
Serous relating to, containing, or producing serum or a substance having a watery consistency.
Sickle cell anemia diseases of the blood – secondary anemia, defect in the manufacture of hemoglobin, abnormal crescent-shaped red blood cell; genetic defect is very common in people of African descent. Hemoglobinopathy.
SIDS sudden unexplained death of an infant under one year.
Sinusitis upper respiratory disease,inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
Stomatitis diseases of the mouth and throat area – inflammation of the mouth.
Symptom subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by the patient but are not directly measurable.
Sign objective disturbances produced by disease, observed by medical personel.
Syndrome a set of signs or symptoms associated with a particular disease.
Syphylis reproductive/inflammatory disease – infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. There are three stages of development –
Primary syphilis ulceration called a hard chancre
Secondary syphylis generalized red rash and small ulcerations on the mucous membranes (especially in the mouth called-mucous patches)
Tertiary syphilis may take years to develop, areas of necrotic tissue called gummas, can appear anywhere but these rubbery lesions generally appear in the cardiovascular and nervous system.
Thrombocytes a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
Thrombocytosis Thrombocytosis is a disorder in which your body produces too many platelets (thrombocytes), which play an important role in blood clotting.
Thrombosis vs embolism circulatory disorder – thrombosis refers to the formation of a solid mass or blood clot within the heart or vessels. An embolism refers to the condition of an object having floated through the bloodstream and causing an obstruction of a vessel.
Thyroxine the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland, acting to increase metabolic rate and so regulating growth and development.
Tonsillitis diseases of the mouth and throat area – inflammation of the tonsils.
Tracheitis lower respiratory disease,inflammation of the windpipe (trachea)
Trisomy 21 chromosomal abnormality; one extra chromosome at the 21 position of autosomes. Variable mental retardation, short, thick neck, almond shaped eyes.
Respiratory Shock Trauma to the respiratory tract (trachea, lungs) that causes a reduction of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. Body cells cannot receive enough oxygen.
Neurogenic Shock Injury or trauma to the nervous system (spinal cord, brain). Nerve impulse to blood vessels impaired, blood vessels remain dilated and blood pressure decreases.
Cardiogenic Shock Myocardial Infarction with damage to heart muscle; heart unable to pump effectively. Inadequate cardiac output. Body cells do not receive enough oxygen.
Hemorrhagic Shock Severe bleeding or loss of body fluid from trauma, burns, surgery, or dehydration from severe nausea and vomiting. Blood pressure decreases, thus blood flow is reduced to cells, tissue, and organs.
Anaphylactic Shock Results from reaction to substance to which patient is hypersensitive or allergic (allergen extracts, bee sting, medication, food). Outpouring of histamine results in dilation of blood vessels throughout the body.
Metabolic Shock Body's homeostasis impaired; acid-base balance disturbed (diabetic coma or insulin shock); body fluids unbalanced.
Psychogenic Shock Shock caused by overwhelming emotional factors. Sudden dilation of blood vessels results in fainting because of lack of blood supply to the brain.
Septic Shock An acute infection, usually systemic, that overwhelms the body (toxic shock symdrome). Poisonous substances accumulate in bloodstream and blood pressure decreases, impairing blood flow to cells, tissues, and organs.
Uremia disease of the kidney – buildup of potentially toxic waste products, ie-urea and uric acid, in the bloodstream.
Urethritis urinary system disease – inflammation of the urethra.
Uric acid a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including
Varicose veins disease of the vessels – or varices, are those veins becoming dilated and tortuous.
Vesicle blister-like elevation of skin containing serous fluid.
Volvulos a subtype of malrotation, in which a loop of bowel is twisted about a focal point along the mesentery attached to the intestinal tract that may result in a bowel obstruction.
Created by: XoRhondaoX