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Mammary Immunology 1

MALT Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
Lactoperoxidase/Thiocyanate/H2O2 Membrane damage and loss of pH gradient - bacteriostatic and bactericidal
Classical Pathway C1 binds to antigen antibody complex
Alternative Pathway Lipid-carbohydrate complex on bacterial cell wall - Factors BDP
Lectin Pathway Carbohydrate containing mannose on bacterial cell wall binds lectin (carbohydrate binding protein produced by the liver)
Complement C1 - C2a+C4b or factors BDP - C3 - C3b - C5 - C5b+C6+C7+C8+C9 = MAC
Lymphoid B cell, T cell, and NK cell
Myeloid Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, DC, Mast cell, Macrophage
Erythoid Platelets and RBCs
Anamnestic Response Heightened, stronger and faster immune response during second encounter
Cognitive Phase Binding of foreign antigens to specific receptors on mature cells
Activation Phase Sequence of events induced in cells as a consequence of specific antigen recognition - clonal expansion
Effector Phase Stage at which cells have been specifically activated by antigens to perform the functions that lead to elimination of the antigen - cytokine/antibody production
IgG1 Selective transport, early defense, macrophages, opsonization
IgG2 Transduction, inflammatory response, macrophages and neutrophils, opsonization
IgA Milk fat, anti-adhesive, dimer, agglutination and toxin neutralization, mucosal tissue, prevent entrance into body = first defense
IgM Pentamer, first Ig produced, complement, opsonize, agglutinate, neutralize toxin, only opsonic for PMN with complement
MHCI All nucleated cells, ENDOGENOUS, CD8 and T suppressor
MHCII Only APCs, EXOGENOUS, CD4, B cells, and APCs
Non-specific enhancement, inflammatory regulators TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IFNs, IL-8, CSF
Specific enhancement, amplify non-specific responses IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-y
G-CSF Increase milk SCC, increase milk neutrophils, enhanced PMN chemotactic and bactericidal activity
GM-CSF Enhanced PMN chemotactic and bactericidal activity, enhanced antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity
Cluster of Differentiation Membrane molecultes recognized by particular monoclonals, used to differentiate different lineages or maturation stages
CD4 MHCII, cytokine production
CD8 MHCI, cytotoxicity and suppressor
TH1 Cellular immunity, intracellular pathogens, secrete IFNy and IL-2, induces CD8 cells - IL-12 induced
TH2 Humoral immunity, extracellular pathogens, secrete IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10, induce B cell antibody production - IL-4 induced
TH17 Extracellular pathogens, secretes IL-17, induce macrophages and neutrophils - IL-6 TGFb induced
Tc Cytotoxic T cells, intracellular pathogens, secretes TNF and IFN, lyse infected cells
Treg Regulate immune homeostasis, secrete IL-10 and TGFb, produce large numbers of cytokines
yD T cells Activated by pathogen proteins, produce cytokines, MALT, calf immunity
Costimulatory Molecules APC = B7, CD80, CD86 T cell = CD28
NSAIDS Suppress cyclooxygenase (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
Steroids Immunosuppressive, blocks arachidonic acid cascade
Leukotrienes Chemotaxis, permeability, bronchial vasoconstriction
Prostoglandins/prostocyclins Vasodilation, inhibits platelet aggregation
Thromboxane Vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation
Selenium Deficiencies = decreased neutrophil function, supplementation = decreased severity and duration of mastitis
Vitamin E Decreases incidence of clinical mastitis
Beta-carotene/Vitamin A Deficiencies = increase in severity, increased response to stress
Copper Deficiencies = decreased ability of immune cells to kill bacteria
Zinc Healthy teat skin, deficiencies = increased rate of bacterial infections
Passive Immunity Transfer of antibodies from humans or animals
Adoptive Immunity Transplantation of immunocompetent cells
Active Immunization Stimulation of host immune system, vaccine
Inactivated Killed with heat or chemicals, requires booster Rabies, flu
Live, attenuated Disabled virulent properties, preferred for health adults Chicken pox, measles and mumps
Toxoid Inactivated toxic compounds from microorganisms Foot and Mouth, tetanus
Subunit (DNA vaccine) Fragment of organism Hep B and HPV
Heterologuous Microorganism shares cross reacting antigens with disease causing microorganism - J5 and BCG
Vascular Changes TNF, IL-1, IL-8, IL-6
Leukocyte Infiltration IFNs, TNF, IL-8
Metabolic Changes IL-6, TNF, IL-1, IFN
Antigen Recognition IFNy, TNF, IL-1
Clonal Expansion IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6
Created by: 1138967652782105