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APES Mid-term

Using non-renewable resources as if they were unlimited Non-sustainable activities
Nutrient chemistry is the same in freshwater as in salt water. True or False False
A theory is an integrated explanation of many hypotheses.
Too many people in an area Human overpopulation
A consequence of freshwater eutrophication is an increase of fish populations. True or False False
A less developed country compared to a moderately developed country would have higher rate of population growth; agricultural based economy; less per-capita income; higher dependence on crops.
The main idea in the "Tragedy of the Commons" by Hardin could be expressed as the environmental costs everyone must pay due to individual exploitation of resources.
Some examples of the commons, as referred to in Hardin's "The Tragedy of the Commons," would be the atmosphere, forests, fresh water resources, marine fisheries
The main cause of pollution in Lake Washington, Washington state was excess, treated sewage from municipal developments
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the government to protect the habitat of an endangered species to help increase their population.
As more pollution is removed from the environment, what happens to the cost of removing more pollution? The cost of removing pollution increases as more pollution is removed.
One of Earth Day's focuses is? what individuals can do to help the environment
In the book, "Silent Spring," Carson brings attention to concern over the use of pesticides and led to restrictions on the use of pesticides.
List some positive outcomes from environmental legislations since, say 1970. Both the California Gray whale and the Bald Eagle have been removed form the endangered species list; over 20 national parks have been established; soil erosion is down almost 60%
The cost of a unit of pollution emitted into the environment. Marginal cost of pollution
Name the US president responsible for setting aside national forests. Theodore Roosevelt
Clean air, groundwater, soil and mineral resources, can be considered as what? Natural capital
Command and control are those laws that do what? impose rules and regulations to set pollution limits.
Given this series of organizational levels, what would be a larger level? species, population, community, ecosystem The Biosphere
Name the type of organism that would be the producer an aphotic, deep ocean hydrothermal vent ecosystem. bacteria
A top level predator that eats a secondary consumer that eats a primary consumer (that eats the producers) would be at what trophic level? tertiary consumer
The first law of thermodynamics. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.
The energy present in the universe will always be the same amount. True or False True
A secondary consumer feeds on an herbivore
Describe the movement of energy in an ecosystem. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction.
What does a detritivore feed on? leaf litter, feces and animal carcasses (detritus)
A pyramid of biomass displays what? the relative amounts of biomass in an ecosystem and how that decreases moving up the trophic levels.
Having mechanical defenses such as spines is an adaptation of predators. True or False False. Mechanical devices such as spines are adaptations of prey species.
Competitive exclusion principle states... One species population will grow and outcompete an second similar species to the level that the second species is excluded from the ecosystem.
Evolution, as a process, is best exemplified by a population of insects developing resistance to a pesticide.
An example of a keystone species in US temperate forests. Gray wolves
Predation exerts a selective force on the prey, favoring what type of characteristics? Characteristics that reduce the probability of capture by the predator.
Prokaryotic organisms are recognized as lacking a nucleus and other internal membranes
A niche can be described as an organism's role or lifestyle within an ecosystem
Because the ESA prohibits killing an endangered species and farmers and ranchers wanted to kill the wolves near Yellowstone, the wolves were declared as... experimental nonessential species in that area.
The process by which carbon is transferred from living organisms back into the atmosphere. cellular respiration
What natural surface would most likely have the highest albedo (reflective property)? a glacier
What natural, abiotic process is involved with the phosphorus cycle? erosion
Photosynthetic organisms remove CO2 and fix it into sugar
Weather refers to conditions in the atmosphere on an hourly or daily basis, whereas climate refers to ____________ weather conditions. long term
Plants release carbon back to the atmosphere by the process of cellular respiration
Gyres circular ocean currents
N2 gas is converted to ammonia by what process within the nitrogen cycle? nitrogen fixation
Secondary succession happens in areas lacking vegetation but have soil.
Temperate rainforests are dominated by which types of trees? Hemlocks, cedars, spruces and firs
A biome is a distinct terrestrial region with similar environmental factors regardless of where in the world it occurs.
Fire-adapted species are commonly found in which biomes? temperate grassland, savanna, and chaparral
Coral reefs may occur as barrier, fringing, or atoll formations; protect coastlines from erosion; are found in shallow, nutrient poor, tropical waters; are the most diverse of all marine environments.
Phytoplankton and zooplankton; frogs and their tadpoles; cattails and emergent vegetation; worms, insect larvae, and crayfish All found in limnetic zone.
Seagrass beds, coral reefs, oysters, clams, and barnacles, kelp forests. All found in benthic environment.
Tropical rain forests are found in areas with ancient, mineral poor soil.
An example of an area comprised of moist grasslands with rich soils and helpful wildfires. Shortgrass prairies
In what direction is worldwide freshwater use changing? Worldwide freshwater use is increasing because, on average, each person is using more.
A reservoir is an artificial lake that stores water for later use.
A property of water that allows aquatic life to survive winters. Water freezes from the top down.
In North America, water problems are most severe in which region? American southwest (Colorado river basin)
What is one problem with building developments in a flood plain? Flood damage is extremely costly.
The Ogallala aquifer largest groundwater deposit in the world.
One problem in developing countries individuals do not have sufficient water to meet basic drinking and household needs.
Ground water is water flowing through permeable rocks and sediments.
A basic goal of the Clean Water Act to eliminate the discharge of pollutants and attain water quality levels that are safe for fishing and swimming.
"An ounce of preventions is worth a pound of cure." precautionary principle
bioaccumulation A buildup of pesticides in an organism's body.
If a population growth rate is 5%, how many years will it take for the population to double? Time =70/5% = 14 years
Medical advances; agricultural advances; sanitation practices; improved water quality. All contributing to the increase of human population.
If a population growth rate is -0.18%, what pattern would be predicted? a continuous slow decrease of population
Global human population is predicted to stop growing in about 100 years. True or False True
A species that shows r-selection typically has large broods, short life span, small body size and early maturity
One example of a density-dependent limiting factor disease
Zero population growth (ZPG) is when birth rate equals death rate.
What type of relationship might there be between the percentage of women using contraceptives and total fertility rate (TFR) of a population? One might expect contraceptive use and TFR to be negatively correlated.
Famines can be caused by insect outbreaks; armed conflict; droughts; floods
When comparing population and the average age a woman marries and the average number of children born per woman, what might be expected? The earlier a woman marries, the more children she is likely to have.
One way humans throw the carbon cycle out of balance combustion of fossil fuels
Wood is not a fossil fuel. True or False True. Wood is not a fossil fuel because it comes from recently alive trees rather than fossilized remains of organism.
Created by: ccarlough