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Science Chapter 4

Three forms of the element carbon Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerene
diamond hardest mineral that forms when carbon atoms are at very high temps. and pressures
Graphite where carbon atoms are bonded strongly together in flat layers; makes an excellent lubricant in machines because it is so slipery
Fullerene a form of carbon that consists of carbon atoms arranged in a repeating pattern; may one day be used for carring medicine through the body
Organic Compound most compounds that contain carbon
Organic compounds have similar properties like... low melting and boiling points, do not disolve well in water, and have strong odors
Hydrocarbon an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
The carbon chains in a hydrocarbon may be... straight, branched, or ring-shaped
Molecular Formula a combination of chemical symbols that represent the elements in each molecule in a compound
Subscripts a number in a formula written lower and smaller than the symbol to indicate the number atoms of an element in a molecule
Structural Formula a description of a molecule that shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms
Isomer one of a number of compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
A carbon atom can form a ______ bond, _______ bond, and _____ bond. single, double, triple
Saturated Hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds
Unstaurated Hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more of the bonds between carbon atoms is double or triple
Substituted Hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
Substituted hydrocarbons include ____ ____, _____, ____, and ____ _____. halogen compounds, alcohols, and organic acids
Hydroxyl Group an -OH group, found in alcohols
Organic Acid a substituted hydrocarbon with one or more of the -COOH group of atoms
Carboxyl Gruop a -COOH group, found in organic acids
Ester an organic compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid
Polymer a large molecule in the form of a chain in which many smaller molecules are bonded together
Monomer one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain
Synthetic a material that is not formed naturally but is manufactured
Nutrients a substance that provides energy or raw materials for the body to grow, repair worn parts, or function properly.
Digestion the process of breaking polymers into momomers by means of chemical change
The four classes of polymers found in all living things are___, ____, ______, ____ ____. carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids
Carbohydrate an energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Glucose a sugar found in the body; the monomer of many complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrate a long chain, or polymer, of simple carbohydrates
____ and _____ are both built from glucose momomers, but the monomers are arranged differently in each case. Starch and cellulose
Starch a complex carbohydrate in which plants store energy
Cellulose a complex carbohydrate found in plant stuructures
Protiens an organic compound that is a polymer of amino acid
Amino Acids one of 20 kinds of organic compounds that are monomers of protiens
Unlike the sugars in complex carbohydrates, the monomers in a protein are ____ _____ alike not exactly
Lipid energy-rich polymers made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; include fats, oils, waxes, and cholesterol
Gram for gram, lipids store more than _____ as much energy as do carbohydrates. twice
Fatty Acid an organic compound that is a monomer of fat or oil
Cholesterol a waxy lipid found in all animal cells
Nucleic Acids a very large organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus; examples are DNA and RNA
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid; a type of nucleic acid
RNA Ribonucleicacid; a type of nucleic acid
Nucleotides an organic compound that is one of the monomers of nucleic acids
The differences among living things depend on the order of ____ in the _____. nucleotides, DNA
Vitamins an organic compound that serves as a helper molecule in a variety of chemical reactions in the body
Minerals a simple element needed by the body, that is not organic
Created by: Izzy Izzy Oi Oi