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Pharmocology

Intro to Pharmacology for PTs

QuestionAnswer
Knowlegde of your pt's meds can be used to? identify current/past problems, determine if current tx is effective, determine if meds are contributing to problems addressed by a PT
The study of harmful effects of drugs is termed? toxicology
The therepuetic effects of drugs is termed? pharmaco-therapeutics
The bodies effects on a drug is called? pharmacokinetics
The drugs effects on the body is called? pharmacodynamics
When naming drugs the chemical name describes? the molecular structure of the drug
This is a nonproprietary name, assigned by USAN council and approved by WHO Generic name
This is a proprietary name, assigned by the manufacturer Brand name
What is the generic name for Valium? Diazepam
The FDA determines what 2 things during the development of the drug? 1. whether the drug is effective for specific condition 2. safety of the drug
What are the 5 steps in the development of drugs? preclinical testing, phase 1 trials, phase II trials, phase III trials and phase IV trials
This trial step involves testing with animals and completing the Investigational New Drug application preclinical testing
This trial step is done with small number of participants often healthy phase 1
This trial step is done with a small well-defined pt population with a specific problem phase 2
This trial step is done with a large number of participant and the completion of a New Drug Application. phase 3
This phase drug development is mostly postmarketing surveillance. phase 4
A drug is defined as? any chemical substance that affects living processes
Typically OTC drugs are used for ___ conditions that do not require _______. minor conditions, medical supervision
True/False. OTC can cause serious side effects and can interact with rx drugs. true
True/False. Vitamin supplements and herbal meds are considered drugs. false, classified as food
Ergogenic aids are? substances, food, chems or training methods that increase physical performance
These aids are used to increase mm mass and STR. anabolic steroids
These aids are used by body builders to decrease fat and increase muscle Human growth hormone
This chemical can increase mental allernes and decrease fatigue, cause irritability if overused, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety caffeine
Drug history questions to ask what meds is pt taking, why is pt taking the med, is pt adherent to each rx
When drugs are prescribed excessively and unnecessary pts can recieve large numbers of drugs that are unnecessary or even harmful. This is called? polypharmacy
Why is polypharmacy a problem with older adults? older adults are 2-3 times more likely to experience adverse drug reactions as younger adults
Older adults account for approx ___ of the pop. yet consume over ___ of all drugs. 12%, 25%
This dose is at which a response begins to occur? threshold dose
This is at which no further increase in response occurs with increase doses. Maximal effect (ceiling effect)
This describes the amount of drug that is needed to produce desired effect. potency
The ____ ____ is a relationship between the median toxic dose and median effective dose. The therapeutic index
ED 50 is what? the median effective dose at which 50% of population responds
TD 50 is what? median toxic dose at which 50% of pop. experiences adverse effect
TI= ? TI = TD 50/ ED 50
What is a safe TI and a less safe TI of a drug. higher the TI the safer, the lower the TI the less safe the drug
Bioavailability is what? the % of a drug that reaches cirulation after the first pass effect
Enteral means the drug is absorbed through the what? GI tract
Parenteral means the drug is absorbed how? with a needle, syringe or IV infusion, can be intravenous, intramuscular, or intrathecal
What are four factors that effect drug distribution? tiss permeability, blood flow, amnt of binding to plasma proteins, amnt binding to subcellular components
Volume of distribution (Vd)= amount of drug administered divided by [DRUG plasma], compared to amount of water in body
Total body water is estimated as ___ liters. 42
If Vd =42 then the drug is _____ distributed throughout the body. uniformly
if Vd<42 then more drug is in the ____. blood
if Vd>42 then more drug is in the ____. tissues
What organ is primary organ for drug metabolism? Liver
What is the major enzyme system that oxidizes at least 350 drugs? P450 monooxygenase system
Enzyme induction means? ability of body to metabolize drugs more rapidly, one explanation of drug tolerance
What is the major organ of exretion? kidney
Why must we know the rate of elimination? to determine the dose to be given
What is Half life? time required for 50% of drug to be removed from body
What is a synergistic effect? when two drugs produce a greater effect that expected effects of two drugs when given individually
What is one of the greatest factors affecting drug response and metabolism? Age (oler, infants and children more sensitive to most drugs)
Affinity means? degree of interaction between drug and receptor
Selectivity means? ability of drug to interact with specific receptors on target tiss and not with other receptors
Agonist drugs do what? drug that binds to receptor and initiates change in function of cell.
Antagonist drugs do what? drug that binds to receptor but does not cause any change in function of cell, can be a blocker
Competitive antagonists do what? compete with agonists for a receptor
NOncompetitive antagonists do what? drug with high affinity for receptor and forms irreversible bond with receptor; agonist does not affect response
This is when there is a decrease in responsiveness, prob caused by chem change in receptors. receptor desensitization
This is an increase in sensitivity, number of receptors, or both that occurs with decrease in stimulation. Supersensitivity
This is decrease in number of available receptors as result of excessive stimulation. down regulation
This is an increase in # of receptors as result of lack of stimulation or continuous exposure to antagonists Up regulation
Created by: txst spr 2009 on 2009-02-22



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