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Astronomy Ch24

Astronomy Test Review Mrs. Arceneaux

White dwarf small, hot star consisting of a hot, dense core contracting under the force of gravity
Absolute magnitude actual amount of light a star gives off
Apparent magnitude amount of a star’s light observed on Earth
Parallax apparent shift in position of an object when viewed from different places; used to determine distances
Constellations groups of stars whose positions in the sky seem to change as Earth moves
Main sequence classification of about 90 percent of the stars
Nebula earliest stage of a star’s formation
Giant large, cool expanding star in which helium fuses to form carbon
Light-year distance that light travels in one year
Supergiant relatively cool star that has expanded to more than 700 times as large as our sun
Neutron star star in which only neutrons can exist in its core
Black hole object so dense that nothing, including light, can escape it
Supernova produced from an explosion that occurs when a star’s core collapses
Binary system two or more stars revolving around one another
Galaxy large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity
Big Bang theory explanation for the beginning of the universe
What is our Sun made of (as well as other stars) and how do we know this? Hydrogen & Helium – spectra seen by use of spectroscope
List the 5 kinds of stars from smallest to largest. Neutron starsDwarfsMain sequenceGiantsSupergiants
size of a Neutron star 10 miles in diameter
size of a dwarf star ½ diameter of the Earth
size of a Main sequence star Middle sized star – 1/10 to 10 times the sun.
size of a ginat 10 to 100 times the sun
size of a supergiant up to 1000 times the sun
List the 5 colors of stars from coolest to hottest Red, Red-Orange, Yellow, White, Blue or Blue-White
The brightness of a star depends on what two things? size and temperature
What determines how long a star lives? The starting mass determines the life cycle.The greater a star’s mass the shorter its lifespan.The smaller a star’s mass the longer its lifespan.
Why do stars shine? Stars shine as a result of the energy produced during the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. Some of the energy is in the form of visible light.
Describe the Life Cycle of a Main Sequence Star. Nebula-Protostar (low mass)-main Sequence(medium)- Red Giant- White dwarf- Black Dwarf or Brown Dwarf
Describe the Life Cycle of a very massive star. nebula- prostar(high mass)- supergiant- supernova- Black hole (if core’s mass is over 30 times the mass of our Sun) or Neutron star (if core’s mass is 3-30 times greater than our sun)
what are the 4 main types of galaxies? spiral, barred spiral, elliptical, irregular
What is the name & type of galaxy we live in? How many stars does it have? Milky Way – barred spiral galaxy, 200 billion star
Where do we live in our galaxy? The Earth is orbiting the Sun in our solar system that is located two-thirds of the way out from the center of the Milky Way on the Orion arm.
Describe the theories of the formation of the Universe Friedmann – Big Bang followed by a crunchSteady-State – remains the same as it always wasOscillating – never-ending cycle of bangs and crunchesBig Bang – giant explosion, sent matter outward
What is the Doppler Effect? Doppler Effect – energy given off by a moving object changes the waves (sound from an ambulance would sound different if the ambulance was moving toward or away from you)
Explain the Red Shift Occurs when the object is moving away from the Earth and the spectrum is shifted toward the red end and the waves are lengthened
Explain the Blue Shift Occurs when the object is moving toward the Earth and the spectrum is shifted toward the blue end and the waves are compressed
What evidence is there that supports the idea of the Big Bang? 1. Background Radiation is spread out 2. All objects are red shifting3. Quasars are the beginning objects of the universe
What is a Hertzsprung –Russell Diagram? Name the star groups found on the H-R Diagram. To which group does our Sun belong? A graph that shows the relationship that exists between the average surface temperature of stars, their color, and their absolute magnitude (true brightness). Main Sequence, Giants, Supergiants, Dwarfs – our Sun is Main Sequence
Describe the temperature and brightness of Giants COOL AND BRIGHT
Describe the temperature and brightness of the main sequence trend hot stars are bright, cool stars are dim
describe the temperature and brightness of a dwarf star hot and dim
what is the distance of a light year? 9.5 trillion km
What pulls the matter together within a nebula? gravity
Created by: is2903