or...
Reset Password Free Sign Up


incorrect cards (0)
correct cards (0)
remaining cards (0)
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the Correct box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the Incorrect box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

Correct box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards



Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Intro to Sociology

vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
sociology the systematic study of human society
manifest functions the recognized and intended consequences of a social structure or institution in society
latent functions the unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social structure or institution in society
social dysfunction any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
variable a concept whose value changes from case to case
correlation a relationship in which two or more variables changes together
cause and effect a relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable cause change in another (the dependent variable)
culture the way of thinking, the way of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
society people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
values culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
beliefs specific statements that people hold to be true
norms rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
mores norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
folkways norms for routine or casual interaction
technology knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
socialization the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learns culture
personality a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
id Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
ego Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
superego Freud's term for cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
sensorimotor stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
preoperational stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
concrete operational stage Piaget's term for the level of of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings
formal operational stage Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
self George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
looking-glass self Charles Horton Cooley's term of self-image based on how we think other sees us
significant others people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
generalized other Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as reference in evaluating ourselves
peer group the social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
total institution a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by administrative staff
resocialization radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling their environment
social interaction the process by which people act and react in relation to others
status a social position that a person a holds
status set all the statuses a person hold at a given time
ascribed status a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntary later in life
achieved status a social position a person takes on voluntary that reflects personal ability and effort
master status a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life
role behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
role set a number of roles attached to a single status
role conflict conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses
role strain tension among the roles connected to a single status
social construction of reality the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Thomas theorem W.I. Thomas' statement that situations define as real are real in their consequences
personal space the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
social group two or more people who identify and interact with one another
primary group small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
secondary group a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
dyad a social group with two members
formal organization a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
organizational environment factors outside an organization that affect its operation
bureaucratic ritualism a focus on rules and regulations to the point of interfering with an organization's goals
sex the biological distinction between females and males
primary sex characteristics the genitals, organs used for reproduction
secondary sex characteristics bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males
sexual orientation a person' romantic and emotional attraction to another person
pornography sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal
deviance the recognized violation of cultural norms
crime the violation of society's formally enacted criminal law
social control attempt by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
criminal justice system a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law
labeling theory the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much form what people do as form how others respond to those actions
stigma a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
crimes against the person (violent crimes) crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others
retribution an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime
deterrance the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
rehabilitation a program for reforming the offender to prent later offenses
societal protection rendering an offender incapable of further offense temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution
criminal recidivism later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
Created by: grac3anat0my on 2009-02-07



Copyright ©2001-2014  StudyStack LLC   All rights reserved.