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Weather Vocab

Atmosphere The mixture of gases that surrounds Earth.
Air Pressure The measurement of the force with which particles in the air push on a surface.
Troposphere The lowest layer in the atmosphere where temperature decreases at a constant rate.
Stratosphere The second layer in the atmosphere
Ionosphere The fourth layer in the atmosphere
Exosphere The last layer in the atmosphere
Thermosphere The second to last layer in the atmosphere
Ozone Layer The layer that protects Earth by absorbing large amounts of harmful UV rays
Greenhouse Effect The process when atmospheric gases absorb and give off infrared radiation
Temperature A measure of how hot or cold something is. Average kinetic energy of particles
Thermal energy The total kinetic energy of particles.
Thermal expansion An increase in the size of a substance in response to an increase in the temperature of the substance
Heat The energy that is transferred between objects that are different temperatures
Radiation The transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
Convection The transfer of energy due to the movement of matter.
Conduction The transfer of energy from one object to another object from direct contact.
Wind The movement of air caused by differences in air pressures
Coriolis Effect The curving of a path of a moving object from otherwise a straight path.
Jet Stream Narrow belts of high speed winds that blow from west to east.
Local wind The movement of air over short distances that move in any direction
Sea Breeze The water is colder than the land: causing air to be pushed to the land (happens during the day)
Land breeze The land in now cold, causing high pressure. The water has low pressure. (happens at night)
Mountain Breeze At night the slopes of mountains are cooled causing low pressure in the valley and high pressure in the mountain peeks.
valley breeze A mountain's local wind where low pressure is near the mountaintops and high pressure near the valleys. This causes breezes that go up the mountain.
Global wind The movement of air over Earth's Surface in Patterns that are worldwide.
Trade winds Winds that blow between 30 degrees and the equator. Sailors relied on them to sail from Europe to the Americas
Westerlies The winds that blow between 30 degrees and 60 degrees. They curve to the East. Carries moist air which causes rain/snow
Polar Easterlies Winds that blow between the poles and 60 degrees. They curve to the west. Carries cold air over most of U.S. -causes snow/freezing weather.
Doldrums Trade winds of both hemispheres that meet in a calm area around the equator. Not much wind- warm, less dense air results in an area of low pressure.
Horse Latitudes Where air stops moving and sinks.
Weather The condition of the atmosphere at one time. Includes temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind ,and visibility.
Humidity The amount of water vapor in the air.
Relative humidity The amount of water vapor in the air compared to the amount of water vapor needed for saturation
Dew point The temperature at which more condensation than evaporation occurs
Precipitation Any form of water that falls to Earth's surface from the clouds.
cirrus A cloud that appears feathery or wispy. Made of ice crystals. Form when wind is strong.
Cumulus Means fair weather, but if becomes taller they produce thunder storms
Stratus Spread out clouds that form in layers. They are low. Dark stratus clouds can block out the sun and produce rain.
Air pressure The force of air molecules pushing on an area
high pressure system Areas where air sinks and moves outward. Makes clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes.
low pressure system rainy weather producing. Have lower pressure than the surrounding areas.
Air mass A large body of air throughout which temperature and moisture contents are similar
front A boundary that forms between air masses
Warm front Forms when a warm cold air mass. Warm air condenses into clouds. Brings drizzly rain- followed by warm clear weather
cold front A fast moving cold air mass pushes up warm air mass. Cooler weather follows a cold front
Stationary front When there is not much wind so both air masses stay in one place - bring unchanging weather
Occluded The force of a cold front pushing the cold front up
Evaporation The change of state from a liquid to a gas
Condensation The change of state from a gas to a liquid
runoff The flow of water that occurs when excess waters flow over Earth's surface.
Created by: evanrad