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Chapter 3 Lessons 3 & 4

why do all cells need energy In order to carry out their functions, such as making proteins and transporting substances into and out of the cell.
photosynthesis the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
sources of energy direct and indirect
example of an organism that obtains direct energy from the sun grass
example of an organism that obtains indirect energy from the sun animals
autotroph an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food
two ways that heterotrophs obtain their food eating other organisms, absorbing their food from other organisms
2 stages of photosynthesis
during photosynthesis plants and some other organisms use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars
first stage of photosynthesis involves capturing the energy from sunlight
In plants, the first stage of photosynthesis process occurs mostly in the leaves
What are the green organelles inside plant cells chloroplasts
pigments The green color (which are colored chemical compounds that absorb light).
chlorophyll main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts
Chlorophyll functions similar to solar cells uses the light energy to power in the second stage of photosynthesis.
2nd stage of photosynthesis cells use the captured energy to produce sugars. For this stage, plants need water (taken up by the roots) and carbon dioxide.
stomata Where The carbon dioxide enters the plant through small openings in the leaves . .
chloroplasts Once in the leaves, where the water and carbon dioxide are taken up into
The photosynthetic Equation Once inside the chloroplasts, water and carbon dioxide undergo a complex series of chemical reactions to produce sugar (a type of carbohydrate) and oxygen.
What happens to the sugar produced in photosynthesis? 1) Plants use the sugar for food. 2) Some sugar is converted to other compounds such as cellulose. 3) Can be stored in plant’s cells for later use.
What is respiration? Respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose. During respiration, cells break down simple food molecules and release the energy they contain.
carbohydrates, including sugars and starches During photosynthesis, plants capture energy from sunlight and store it in the form of
respiration When cells need this stored energy, they break down the carbohydrates in the process of
The first stage of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of the organism’s cells.
In this (1st stage) of respiration, molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules
Is oxygen involved in the first stage of respiration No
How much energy is released in the 1st phase of respiration? A small amount
The second stage of respiration takes place in the mitochondria. even smaller molecules.
In this 2nd stage of photosynthesis, small molecules are broken down into even smaller molecules
Is oxygen involved in the 2nd stage of photosynthesis? YES
How much energy is released in the 2nd phase of respiration? A great deal
These products diffuse out of the cell. carbon dioxide and water.
Where do plants obtain the sugar they use for respiration? From photosynthesis
Where do animals obtain the sugar they use for respiration? From the food they consume
Some organisms live where there is no oxygen (such as deep in the ocean). These organisms obtain their energy through the process of fermentation
Fermentation provides energy for cells without using oxygen
Created by: enunley