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8th Grade Science - Ecology & Environment Study Guide

Autotroph an organism that can make its own food
Carrying Capacity maximum population size of species in an environment
Commensalism a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not harmed
Heterotroph an organism that must obtain its energy from an outside source
Host the organism that is harmed in a parasitic relationship
Mutualism a relationship in which both organisms benefit
Natural Selection process by which organisms that inherit helpful traits tend to reproduce more successfully than others
Parasite an organism that causes harm to its host
Parasitism a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
Phytoplankton Plankton consisting of microscopic plants
Symbiosis a relationship in which two organisms live in close association with others
Zooplankton plankton consistsing of small animals.
autotroph examples rose, tree, grass
heterotroph examples foxes, snakes, owl
Example of predator-prey relationship snake - mouse
Example of parasite-host relationship tapeworm - cow
Example of mutualism relationship oxpeckers feed on ticks found on rhinoceros
Example of communalistic relationship hermit crab lives in shell that was made and left by snails
Which organisms are the decomposers in this specific food web? bacteria/fungi
Which organisms are competing for the "Forage Fish" Group? salmon/Lake Trout, cormorant, herring gull, snapping turtle, eagle
If the Salmon/Lake Trout were removed from this specific food web, how would this affect the forage fish population? the numbers would increase
What is the relationship between the Eagle and the Salmon? Eagle=predator; Salmon=prey
What is the relationship between the Plankton and the Waterfowl in this specific food web? Plankton=producer; Waterfowl=Herbivore
According to the specific food web, which organism has the most types of food? Eagle
In a typical predator-prey relationship of over 10 years, what happens to the level of predators? there are few in the beginning, then increase midstream then decrease
In a typical predator-prey relationship of over 10 years, what happens to the level of prey? there are many in the beginning, then slowly decrease midstream to where there are few