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Microbioloy Ch. 1

Introduction to Microbiology

Microbiology the biology of organisms that cannot bee seen with the "naked" eye
Microorganisms/microbes "germs" or "bugs"
Microbiology includes... viruses, bacteria, archaea, algae, fungi, protozoa, helminths
Antonio van Leeuwenhoek "Father of Microscope" began making and using simple microscopes examined water and visualized tiny creatures ANIMALCULES
By the end of what century they were called microbes/microorganisms 19th
What Leeuwenhoek could have seen: fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, archaea, small animals
people from the past thought living things arose from 3 processes: asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, or from nonliving matter
Who proposed spontaneous generation? Aristotle
Spontaneous generation living things can arise from nonliving matter (abiogenesis)
Redi's experiments -when decaying meat was kept isolated from files, maggots never developed -meat exposed to files was soon infested -as a result, scientists began to doubt Aristotle's theory
Pasteur's expeiments -when the "swan-necked" flasks remained upright, no microbial growth appeared -when the flask was tilted, dust from the bend in the neck sweeped back into the flask and made the infusion cloudy with microbes within a day
Koch's Postulates -suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease and be absent from healthy hosts -agent must be isolated and grown outside of host -when the agent is introduced into a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease -same
Semmelweis handwashing
Lister antiseptic technique
Snow infection control and epidemiology
epidemiology study of spread of disease
Jenner vaccine; field of immuniology
Ehrileh "magic bullets" field of chemotherapy
immunology study of fighting diseases
biotechnology biological systems for our purpose
astrobiology study of microbes in space
Recombinant DNA technology genes in microbes, plants, and animals manipulated for practical applications
Gene therapy inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective one in humans by inserting desired gene into host cells
Bioremediation uses living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments
Roles of microorganisms in the environment recycling of chemicals such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
Roles of microbes as energy source biofuels
Taxonomy system for organizing, classifying, and naming living things
Naming microorganisms -Binomial (scientific) nomenclature -gives each microbe 2 names - genus=always capitalize -species=lowercase -both italicized or underlined
3 domain Bacteria Archara Eukarya
Bacteria prokaryotic cell structure extreme environments simple cells
Archaea prokaryotic cell structure extreme environments simple cells
Eukarya eukaryotic cell structure complex 60 C
Evolution living things change gradually over millions of years more in notes
Phylogeny natural relatedness between groups of organisms (example between coli and salmonella)
Created by: KatelynnJoy