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Microbiology Ch. 2

Review of Chemistry

Matter anything that takes up spaces and has mass
Atoms the smallest chemical units of matter
Electrons negatively charged subatomic particles circling a nucleus
Nucleus structure containing neurons and protons
Neurons uncharged particles
Protons positively charged particles
Element pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom
Atomic number equal to the number of protons in the nucleus
Atomic mass (atomic weight) sum of masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Isotopes atoms of a given element that differ in the number of NEUTRONS in their nuclei
Valence electrons electrons in outermost shell that interact with other atoms
Chemical bonds atoms combine by sharing or transferring valence electrons
Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Compound a molecule composed of more than one element
Covalent bond sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms
Nonpolar covalent bonds -shared electrons spend equal amounts of time around each nucleus -no poles exist -equal sharing
Polar covalent bonds -unequal sharing of electrons -polarity
Ionic bonds -atoms with either positive (cation) or negative (anion) charges -no electrons shared
Hydrogen bonds -electrical attraction between charged H+ and negative charge on same or different molecule -Weaker than covalent bonds but essential for life
Oxidation -release of electrons -more +
Reduction -gain of electrons -more -
Synthesis reaction -involve the formation of larger molecules -require energy (endothermic)
Dehydration synethesis loss of water in a polymerization reaction
Anabolism all the synthesis reactions in an organism
Decomposition reactions -break bonds within larger molecules -release energy (exothermic)
Hydrolysis the breaking of polymers into its units, by adding water
Catabolism all the decomposition reactions in an organism
Water -most abundant substance in organism -most of its special characteristics due to 2 polar covalent bonds
Water freezes 0 C
Water boils 100 C
Acids and bases are dissociated by water into component cations and anions
Acid dissociates into one or more H+
Base binds with B+ when dissolved into water; OH-
Metabolism requires.. relatively constant balance of bases and acids
Organic macromolecules large molecules used by all organisms -lipids -carbs -proteins -nucleic acids
Monomers basic building blocks of macromolecules
Lipids not composed of regular subunits, but are all hydrophobic 4 groups: fats, phospholipids, waxes, steroids
Fats triglycerides
Phospholipids -2 fatty acid form dehydration synthesis with glycerol and phosphate - building block of membranes
Waxes contain one long-chain fatty acid covalently linked to long-chain alcohol by ester bond -completely insoluble in water
Steroids -4 ring structure -hydrophobic -smaller -can be imbedded in membrane and can pass through
Carbohydrates Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CH2O)
Carbohydrates Functions 1.) long-term storage of chemical energy 2.) ready energy source 3.) structural support
Carb types: Monosaccharides Disaccharides polysaccharides
Glycosidic bonds links carbs
Dextrans secreted by some bacteria to form slime layers-biofilms
Agar used to make solid culture media; comes from seaweeds; complex of galactose and sulfur containing carbohydrates
Chitin polymer of glucosamine; major component of many fungi
Peptidoglycan glycans (polysaccharides) linked by small peptides; component of bacterial cell walls
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) complex of lipids and polysaccharides; component of gram-negative cell walls
Biofilm extra cellulose layer; form dome around organism
Protein functions -structure -enzymatic catalysis -regulation-respond to stimuli -transportation -defense
Amino acids look in notes
Peptide bond a covalent bond that is formed between amino acids by dehydration synthesis reaction
Peptide bond structure has a central C, carboxyl group, H, amino acid, and side group (R)
Linkage of amino acids by peptide bond
nucleic acids DNA and RNA
Monomers nucleotides -three parts --phosphate --pentose sugar(deoxyribose or ribose) (5 sugar) --one of the 5 nitrogenous bases
DNA bases A,T,G,C
RNA bases A,U,G,C
Bonds between C and G 3 H bonds
Bonds between T and A in DNA or U and A in RNA 2 H bonds
DNA is double stranded in most cells and viruses - 2 stands are complentary - 2 strands are antiparellel
Created by: KatelynnJoy