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Human Nutrition

Test #1

What are the Six Classes of Nutrients? 1) Carbohydrates2)Lipids3)Proteins4)Vitamins5)Minerals6)Water
Which of the classes of Nutrients are the Energy Yielding Nutrients? Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins
Which of the classes of Nurtients are NON Energy Yielding Nutrients? Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
Calories = ? ? = Energy
How many kilocalories per gram do Carbohydrates have? 4 kilocalories per gram
How many kilocalories per gram do Lipids have? 9 KiloCalories per gram
How many kilocalories per gram do Proteins have? 4 kilocalories per gram
Name some reasons that influence food choices... [6 reasons] 1)Time and Convenience2)Taste and Culture3)Habits and Emotions4)Social Reasons and Trends5)Advertising6)Financial Constraints
What is Nutrition? Nutrition is the science that studies the nutrients and compounds in foods that you eat nourish and affect your body finctions and health.
What is the #1 cause of death? Heart Disease
What is the #2 cause of death? Cancer
What is the #3 cause of death? Stroke
What are essential nutrients? nutrients that either can not be sunthesized by the body or can not be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs (you must have them to function)
What do MACROnutrients consist of? Carbohydrates, Lipids, and proteins(need MORE of these in your diet)
What do MICROnutrients consist of? Vitamins and Minerals (need less of these in your diet)
What do MACROnutrients (carbs, lipids, & proteins) do for your body? [4 things] 1)provide energy in the form of calories2)build and maintain body tissue3)transport nutrients4)maintain healthy immune system
What do MICROnutrients (vitamins and minerals) do for your body? they are required for numerous chemical reactions to occur
What are the SIX steps to the scientific method? 1)observation2)hypothesis3)experiment4)hypothesis supported/not supported5)publication in a peer reviewed journal6)replication
What is undernutrition? a state of inadequate nutrition where a person is not meeting their nutrition needs
What is malnourished? the long term outcome of overnutrition
What is overnutrition? a state of excess nutrients and calories in the diet
what is the most common nutrition in the United States? Overnutrition
What are three principles involving healthy eating? 1)Balance2)Variety3)Moderation
What does it mean to be eating a balanced meal? a balancing meal consists of choosing food to meet nutrient and health needs--also consuming adequate amounts of each essential nutrient, fiber and energy
What does it mean to be eating a variety for a meal? to eat a variety for a meal means to consume a variety of foods (foods that differ from day to day)
What does it mean to eat in moderation? Eating in moderation means eating appropriate amounts--limiting certain foods significantly and limiting energy to match your individual needs
What does DRIs stand for? Dietary Reference Intake
What is Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) specific reference values for each nutrient issued by the US national Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine
What are the 5 reference values of the Dietary Reference Intakes(DRIs)? 1)Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)2)Recommended Dietary Allowance(RDA)3)Adequate Intake (AI)4)Tolerable Upper Limit(UL)5)Acceptable Macronutrient distribution Range (AMDR)
What does EAR stand for? Estimated Average Requirement
What is the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)? the average amoiunt of a nutrient that is known to meet the needs of 97-98% if individuals of similar age and gender
What does UL stand for? Tolerable Upper Limit
What is the Tolerable Upper Limit (UL)? it refers to the highest amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm
What does AMDR stand for? Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
What is the acceptable macronutrient distribution range(AMDR)? the range of intake for the energy providing nutrients
What are some dietary guidelines for americans? (9 guidelines) 1)adequate nutrients2)weight management3)physical activity4)food groups5)fats6)carbohydrates7)sodium and potassium8)alcohol9)food safety
Transfat and saturated fat are related to what disease? cardiovascular disease
If a food label reads that there are a total of 120 calories per serving and 45 or those calories come from fat, what is the percentage of caolries that come from fat? (45/120)= .375 x 100= 37.5%
What are the two types of digestion? mechanical and chemical (both have to be occuring for the digestion process to work)
Where does digestion begin? in the mouth when one chews and mixes their food with saliva.
What does the nervous system do during digestion? the brain and hormones connunicate are needed for food and drink
what does the circulatory system do during digestion? it transports, both into and out of the body
what does the lymphatic system do during digestion? it helps maintain internal fluid environment and it also transports fat-soluble vitamins and fat from the intestinal tract to the blood
what does the excretory system do during digestion? it eliminated wastes from the circulatory system and the kidney filter the waste from the blood
Name two surgery's that disrupt digestion. Gastric Bypass (not reversible) and Lap-Band Surgery (reversible)
Q. (T/F) A Person who is obese can also be malnourished? True
Q. (T/F)Licensing dietitians provides a way to identify people who have met who have met minimum standards of education and experience nutrition True
Q. In what order are ingredients listed on a food label? In descending order by weight
Q. What is the process that breaks down food into absorbable units? Digestion
Q. (T/F) Bariatic Surgery is recommended for individuals who have 30 or more pounds to lose False (40 or more, 35 owith morbidity)
Q. Healthy eating choices involve the principles of __________, _______________, and ___________. balance, moderation, and variety
Q. (T/F) The number of obese and overweight people in the U.S. is declining thanks to public education efforts? Fasle
Q. Having cake and ice cream as part of a birthday celebration is an example of which food choice factor? Habit
What is the most energy-rich of the nutrients? fat
Q. Regurgitatied foor due to GERD (acid reflux)has what sort of pH balance? acid
Q. (T/F)Bicarbonate functions as an emulsifier in the large intestines? False
Q. Where do most digestive enzymes come from? the pancreas
Q. What is the gateway between the end of the small intestines and the large intestines called? ileocecal sphincter
Q. (T/F) Digestive disorders are typically confined to the stonach. False
Q. (T/F) Bile is made in the pancreas and stored in the gallbladder False
Q. (T/F) a functional food is one that provides all the basic nutrients in adequate amounts. False
Q. In nutrition what does the word ESSENTIAL mean? it means the nutrients necessary for health that can not be manufactured by the body in suffieient quantities to meet physiological need, to must be ingested.
Q. (T/F)For a healthy adult, fat shold compries 20-35% of one's daily calories. True
What is the healthy range for protein intake for a healthy adult? 10-35%
What is the only animal product that contains carbohydrates? milk
What are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber? complex carbohydrates
What are the three most important monosaccharides? frustose, galactose, and glucose
What are two monosaccharides linked together called? disaccharide
What are the most important disaccharides? lactose, maltose and sucrose
What is the sweetest tasting mono and di saccharide? fructose
What is another name for Glucose? dextrose
Blood levels are increased in _________glycemia. hyper
Blood Levels are decreased in _________glycemia hypo
What percent of people are lactose intolerant? 25%
What does it mean to be lactose intolerant? one is unable to break the disaccharides apart
What are the 3 catagories of Polysaccharides? starch, glycogen, and cellulose
Plants store carbohydrates as ________. a starch
Human Beings store carbohydrates as _____________ glycogen
How do plants make their own food? through photosynthesis
What are the two types of fiber? soluble, and insoluble
What is a chronic disease? it's a long-term degenerative disease characterizer by deterioration of the body's organs
What are the three types of diabetes? Type I, Type II, and gestational diabetes
Which type of diabetes is not preventable, and cannot be cured? Type I
(T/F) Dental decay is THE MOST COMMON disease in the American Population? TRUE
Created by: rachelanne39