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Anatomy II

Test 1 Maxwell

What is anatomy? The study of structure
What is physiology? The study of the mechanisms of homeostasis
What isn't regulated with diabetes? Blood glucose levels
What is the concentration of glucose? 100mg/100mL
What are the systems of coordination? Integumentary (skin), skeletal, muscle, nervous system, endocrine
What is the function of the digestive system for transport? Break down glucose
What purpose does the respiratory system serve for transport? Supplies oxygen
What is the purpose of the urinary system in terms of transport? Dispose of waste
What is the pathway that results in a response Stimulus, endocrine cells (secrete), blood vessels, target cells, response.
How are hormones produced? From the chemical messenger by endocrine cells
How are chemical messengers transported? By the blood
What function does insulin serve? A hormone that helps to regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood
What is the extracellular fluid of blood? Blood plasma
What does homeostasis refer to? The relative (not absolute) constancy of the composition of extracellular fluid
What are the two types of extracellular fluid? Interstitial and plasma
Which extracellular fluid is more abundant? Interstitial
What two organic compounds are not water soluble? Oxygen and carbon dioxide
What function does hemoglobin serve? Greatly increases the ability of blood to transport oxygen
Where is hemoglobin found? In plasma or inside a RBC
Is hemoglobin a plasma protein? No
What type of cell transports large amounts of oxygen? RBC/ Erythrocyte
What is the basic function of the circulatory system? To transport things to and from cells
What are the 3 ways things are transported in the body? 1. Dissolved in plasma ie glucose 2. Bound to a plasma protein 3. Bound to an intracellular protein ie oxygen and hemoglobin
What percentage of oxygen does hemoglobin transport? 99%
What are other names for hematocrit? Formed elements and PCV (packed cell volume)
What are the percentages for formed elements and plasma? 45% formed elements and 55% plasma
What are tissues of the body? epithelial, muscle, connective/supportive
Why is blood a tissue? Because of the extracellular fluid (plasma)
What makes RBC red? Hemoglobin
What does a dark red cell mean? It is deoxygenated
What does a light red cell mean? It is oxygenated
What does low hematocrit levels mean? Low red blood cell count which means a problem transporting oxygen or anemia. Energy cannot be extracted from food.
What is the purpose of the bicarbonate ion? To trasport CO2.
What percentage of bicarbonate is water soluble? 85%
How is urea excreted? The amino group is removed from the amino acids, conversion of ammonia to urea then it is excreted
Where is urea produced? In the liver
Urea production is a result of what being broken down? Protein
What is the path of travel for urea? Liver, kidney, urine
What transports urea? Blood
What is uremic poisoning? Too much urea which results in kidney failure
Is urea water soluble? Yes
What is the concentration of urea approximately? 20mg/100mL
Why do we need iron? It is a component part of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin has 4 iron atoms
Approximately how many grams of iron are located in the blood? 3-4
What is the percentage range of transferring saturation? 20-50%
What is the approximate amount of iron lost per day? 1-2 grams
What is the location of iron intake? The small intestine
Can iron be dissolved in plasma? No
What is the most common type of anemia? Iron deficiency anemia
What does hepatic mean? Liver
What is a hepatocyte? A liver cell
What is ferritin? An iron storage molecule
What happens if there is too much iron in the liver? It precipitates out
What are the 4 functions of the liver? 1. Produce most plasma proteins 2. Store iron bound to ferritin 3. Synthesize urea 4. Secrete hepcidin
What does hepcidin do? Blocks the absorption of iron to the liver. Tells the small intestine to stop absorption
Is the liver an endocrine organ? If so why? Yes, because it releases hormone
What is the pH range of blood? 7.35-7.45
Venous blood is slightly more acidic because of what? The effect of CO2
Blood coming in has ____ CO2 than blood coming out less
What is the purpose of blood buffers? The prevent dramatic pH changes by biding hydrogen ions
What is the pH of urine 6
At what pH does acidosis occur 7.2
At what pH would death occur? 7.0
What can hemoglobin do to temporarily reduce changes in pH? Bind hydrogen ions
Males are what percentage body fluid? Females? Males 60%. Females 65%
What fraction of fluid is intracellular? 2/3
What is the total solute concentration of intracellular and extracellular fluid 280 mOS/kg
How much intracellular fluid does the average person have? 42L
What percentage of plasma is in the blood? 55%
If a person has 3L of plasma how many liters of blood do they have? 6L
If a person has 6L of blood how many liters of plasma do they have? 3L
How many quarts of blood does the average person have? Pints? 5-6 quarts or 10-12 pints
What is the primary solute in any extracellular fluid? Na and Cl interstitial an plasma
Why is plasma an unusual extracellular fluid? It contains a significant amount of protein
Explain electrophoresis. The rate of migration is determine by the size and charge. (-) is the start with larger proteins (+) is the finish with smaller proteins
What are albumins? The smallest and most abundant plasma protein. (65%)
What are the 3 globulins and what percentage do they make up? Alpha, Beta, Gamma. 30%
What type of globulins are antibodies? Gamma globulins
Fibrinogen is a component of what? Plasma
What does fibrinogen convert into? Fibrin
What are the 3 classes of antibodies? IgA, IgM, and IgG
The liver produces plasma proteins but does not produce what? Immunoglobins
Clotting= Coagulation
How does a clot form? Fibrinogen polymerizes into fibrin by an enzyme called thrombin
Which enzyme used for clotting is always in the blood? Prothrombin
Why type of fibers is formed in the clotting process? Large, long, sticky fibers
What are platelets? Fragments of cells that play an important role in coagulation.
How many RBC are in a microliter 5 million
What is the ratio of RBC to WBC 700:1
What is the lifespan of a mature RBC (enucleate) 120 days
What is another name for a WBC Leukocyte
What makes of the formed elements? Platelets, RBC, WBC
How many RBC are removed per minute? 200 million
About how many RBC are there in the body? 30 trillion
What is the shape of an erythrocytes? Small biconcave disc shaped
Some hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow can produce what? Formed elements
What is aplastic anemia? A unique anemia where a person doesn't have adequate amounts of red bone marrow possibly due to radiation.
What is hematopoiesis? Blood formation
Bone marrow is what type of tissue? Hematopoietic tissue
Where is most hematopoietic tissue found? Examples? Flat bones like the sternum and ribs?
What is leukopoiesis? The production of WBC
What unique ability do hematopoietic stem cells have? The ability to become different formed elements
What is the pathway for the lineage that gives rise to RBC? Blood stem cell --> myeloid stem cell -->myeloid blast and platelet or --> RBC
What is the pathway for the lineage that gives rise to WBC? Blood stem cell --> lymphoid stem cell --> lymphoblast --> WBC
What function does the spleen play? Recognition and removal of old RBC.
What does erythropoietin do? Stimulate erythropoiesis hormone to make more RBC
Why would we need more RBC? Blood donation, high altitude locations, athletes (body responds to needs)
What are the steps for oxygen level regulation? 1. Low O2 blood levels (stimulus) 2. Kidneys increase production of erythropoietin 3. Stem cells increase RBC production 4. O2 blood levels returns to normal
How is hematopoiesis regulated? Hormonally
What is the stimulus and response for O2 regulation? Low O2 (hypoxia) is the stimulus and the response is increased RBC production and increased O2 delivery.
What alternative way is erythropoietin available? Injection
An erythrocyte has the same size as what? A capillary
What is a normoblast?? The last nucleated stage
What is a reticulocyte? First non nucleated stage
What does it mean if you have more than 1% of reticulocytes? You body is trying to rapidly replace blood due to loss
Are the erythrocytes in circulation nucleated or enucleated? Enucleated
What is a tetrameric protein? A protein with four subunits
Each protein part (globin) is coded for how many genes and what are they? 2, alpha and beta
What is the non protein part of the subunit called? Where is it located? Heme. The center
What globin genes are located on chromosome 16? 2 alpha globin genes
What globin genes are located on chromosome 11? 2 beta globin genes
Do the alpha and beta globin genes have the same level of activity? Yes
What is Thalassemia? One subunit is produced more than the other
What is bilirubin? Metabolic (nitrogenous) wast when hemoglobin is broken down and it is put into feces.
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia? A mutation in the beta globin gene where are person has 2 mutated genes
What occurs with sickle cell anemia? Cells break down fast and must be removed quickly. A person makes a lot of RBC and not enough.
What are the genotypes for malaria susceptibility? AA= susceptible to Malaria Aa= resistant to Malaria but may have sickle cell occasionally aa= resistant to Malaria but has fatal sickle cell
Iron deficiency anemia is due to what? Nutrition/diet lack of B12, Folic acid, and iron
What is the part of hemoglobin that is not recycled? Bilirubin
What are the 2 major categories of pathogens? Bacteria and viruses
What is the function of an immune system? To fight off disease causing organisms and pathogens
What do leukocytes fight? Pathogens
Are bacteria typically intracellular or extracellular? Extracellular
Are viruses intracellular or extracellular Intracellular
What do killer cells prevent? Virally infected cell multiplication
What is the definition of humoral? Body fluid
Humoral immunity is effective against what type of pathogen? Bacteria
How many types of leukocytes are there? 5
What type of cell produces antibodies? B Cells
How many leukocytes are in a microliter? 7-9,000
What are the physical characteristics of leukocytes? Larger, nucleated, no hemoglobin
What two cells are considered lymphocytes? B and T cells
Where do all WBC come from? Red bone marrow
Where do lymphocytes become functional? The thymus
What does TD and TI mean? Thymus dependent (T- cells) and thymus independent (B-cells)
As you age what happens to the thymus? It shrinks
What is it called if you are born without a thymus? Not immunocompetent
What is the target of an immune response? An antigen
What invokes an immune response? An antigen
B-cells secrete _____ which bind to the ______ on the surface antibodies, antigen
What does the complement complex do? Punches a hole (MAC, membrane attack complex) into the bacteria and causes lysis
How is a cell marked for destruction? The binding of an antibody
The binding of an antigen to attract complement proteins is an example of what type of immunity? Mediated (humoral) immunity
The virally infected cells precent ____ from the virus on its surface? Antigen
How to Cytotoxic T cells kill the infected cell in 3 steps? 1. Binds to the infected cell 2. Perforin makes holes in infected cells membrane 3. Infected cell lyses
Created by: acegirl5