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VMT Chapter 2

All of Chapter 2

Ventral belly or underside of the body or body part
Cranial means toward the head
Anterior front of the body
Rostral nose end of the head
Cephalic pertaining to the head
Medial towards the midline
Superior uppermost, above, or toward the head
Proximal nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure
Superficial near the surface; external
Palmar front paw pad
Dorsal refers to the back
Caudal toward the tail
Posterior rear of the body
Lateral away from the midline
Inferior lowermost, below, or toward the tail
Distal farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure
Deep away from the surface; internal
Planter rear paw pad
Midsagittal plan plan that divides the body into equal right and left halves
Median plan and the midline
Sagittal plan plan that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
Dorsal plan / Frontal plan that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts
Transverse / Horizontal / Cross-sectional plan plan that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts
-logy the study of
Anatomy the study of body structure
Physiology the study of body function
Physi/o nature
Pathology study of nature, cause, and development of abnormal conditions
Path/o disease
Pathophysiology study of changes in function caused by disease
eti/o cause
Etiology study of disease causes
-logist specialist
Cavity is a hole or hallow space in the body that contains and protects internal organs
Cranial cavity hallow space that contains the brain in the skull
Spinal cavity hallow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
Thoracic / Chest cavity hallow space that contains the heart and lungs with in the ribs between the neck and diaphragm
Abdominal cavity hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
Peritoneal cavity hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum
Pelvic cavity hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory system's
Abdomen is the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity
Thorax is the crest region located between the neck and the diaphragm
Groin / Inguinal area region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh
Membranes are thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or an organ
Peritoneum is the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and it covers some organs in this area
Parietal peritoneum is the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Visceral peritoneum is the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
Peritionitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
Umbilicus is the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus
Navel umbilicus
Mesentery is the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestin in the abdomanal cavity
Retroperitoneal superficial to the peritoneum
Recumbency medical term meaning lying down
Dorsal recumbency is lying down on the back
Ventral recumbency lying down on the belly
Left lateral recumbency lying on the left side
Right lateral recumbency lying on the right side
Prone lying in sternal recumbency
Supine lying in dorsal recumbency
Adduction movement toward the midline
Abduction movement away from the midline
Flexion closure of a joint angle, or reduction of the angle between two bones
Extension straightening of a joint angle (handshake)
Hyperflexion / Hyperextension occur when a joint is flexed or extended too far
Supination is the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmer surface is turned upward
Pronation is the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the pamlmer surface is facing downward (eating soap with your hand)
Rotation circular movement around an axis
Cyt/ o combing form for cell
Cytology study of cells
Protoplam membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
plasm formative material of cells
prot/o first
Cell membrane / Plasma membrane the structure lining the cell that protects the cell’s contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
Cytoplasm is the gelatinous material located in the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
Nucleus structure in the cell that contains nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and the surrounding membrane
Nucleoplasm material in the nucleus
Chromosomes are the structure in the nucleus composed of DNA that transmits genetic information
Genetic disorder inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes
Congenital denotes something that is present at birth
Anomaly deviation from what is regard as normal
Tissue a group of specialized cells that is similar in structure and function
Histology study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue
Hist/o combining form for tissue
Four types of tissue Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
Epithelial tissue / Epithelium covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells in a variety of arrangements
Endothelium cellular covering thats forms the lining of the internal organs, including the blood vessels
Mesothelium cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum
Connective tissue adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together
Adipose fat tissue
Adip/o fat
Muscle tissue specialized ability to contract and relax
Nervous tissue tissue that react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses (sends and receives)
plasia describes formation, development, and growth in the NUMBER of cells in an organ or tissue
-trophy formation, development, and growth in the SIZE of an organ or a tissue or individual cells
Anaplasia change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other
Aplasia is lack of development of an organ, a tissue, a cell
Hypoplasia incomplete or less than normal development of an organ,tissue,cell
Neoplasia fast growing tissue (tumor)
Tumor tissue mass
Benign not recurring tumor
Malignant tending to spread and be life threatening
-oma tumor or neoplasm
Atrophy decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ, tissue, cell
Dystrophy defective growth in the size of an organ, tissue, cell
Hypertrophy increase in the size of an organ, tissue, cell
ana- without
neo- new
Glands group of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body
aden/o combining form for gland
Two Categories of Glands exocrine and endocrine
Exocrine gland groups of cells that secrete their chemical substance into ducts that led out the body or to other organ (sweating)
Endocrine glands group of cells that secrete their chemical substance directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body
Organ part of the body that performs a special function and functions
oste/o, oss/e, oss/i bones
arthr/o joints
chondr/o cartilage
my/o muscles
fasc/i, fasci/o fascia
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendons
arteri/o arteries
ven/o, phleb/o veins
hem/o, hemat/o blood
lymph/o lymph vessels, fluid, nodes
tonsill/o tonsils
splen/o spleen
thym/o thymus
nas/o, rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
trache/o trachea
laryng/o larynx
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulm/o lungs
or/o, stomat/o mouth
esophag/o esophagus
col/o, colon/o large intestine
pancreat/o pancreas
neur/o, neur/i nerves
encephal/o brain
myel/o spinal cord
ophthalm/o, ocul/o, opt/o, opt/i eyes
optic/o sight
ot/o, audit/o,aud/i ears
aur/i, aur/o external ear
acoust/o, acous/o sound
adren/o adrenals
gonad/o gonads
pineal/o pineal
pituit/o pituitary
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, testicul/o testes
One uni- and mono
Two duo- or bi- and dyo-
Three tri-
Four quadri-, quadro-, tetr-,tetra-
Five quinqu-, quint-, pent-, penta-
Six sex-, hex-, hexa-
Seven sept-, septi-, hept-, hepta-
Eight octo-, oct-, octa-, octo-
Nine novem-, nonus-, ennea-
Ten deca-, decem-, dek-, deka-
Meso- middle
Created by: mbely