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IOC4 Module 7

Key terms from IOC4 Module 7

trigger was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Bosnian Serb. WWI
Sinking of both civilian and military boats without warning in any and all waters by submarines. Unrestricted submarine warfare
British steamship sunk by German u-boats. Prompted 3 diplomatic notes from Woodrow Wilson demanding abandonment of unrestricted submarine warfare. Lusitania
Intercepted telegram from Germany to Mexico discussing support of Mexican invasion of Texas if the US was at war with Germany. Brought US into WWI. Zimmerman Telegram
Bolshevik party led by V. Lenin overthrew provisional government. Anti-capitalist movement. Russian Revolution (1917)
Use of chlorine, mustard, tearing, and blistering gasses were first used during WWI. Poison gas warfare
First used in WWI brought the ends to standard trench warfare. Tank warfare
First widely used in WWI, rate of fire enhanced need for trench based combat. Machine gun warfare
Used early on for reconnaissance and then increasingly for bombing. Airplanes
2 year "Spanish Flu" spread worldwide and killed between 20 and 100 million people. 1918 Flu
June 18th 1919 - End of WWI. Required Germany and it's allies to accept responsibility for causing the ward and to disarm and make territory concessions and reparations to certain countries. Treaty of Versailles
1924- An attempt following WWI for the Allies to collect war reparations from Germany. The Dawes Plan
28th president of the US. Established FTC, first progressive income tax, and Federal reserve act. Reelected prior to US entering WWI. Proposed the league of Nations (precursor to the UN). woodrow Wilson
recursor to the UN, established around the treaty of Versailles. 28 nations strong. League of Nations.
31st president and first Catholic. Elected 1 year before the beginning of the great depression. Herbert Hoover
emphasizes the period's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism. Ended finally with the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Roaring Twenties
the equation of personal happiness with consumption and the purchase of material possessions. Consumerism
Purchase of items without upfront payment. Buying on Credit
1919 - Amendment passed prohibiting the manufacturing, sales, and transportation of alcohol in the US. 18th Amendment
1920s referred to a "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to the new Jazz music, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers
1924 - established a quote system to regulate the influx of immigrants to America. Restricted # of new immigrants from Europe and Asia. National Origins Act
reduced inheritance and personal income taxes, cancelled many excise imposts, and ended public access to federal income tax returns. Revenue Act of 1926
October 24th 1929 - Stock market drops 1/2 of value in a single day. Black Thursday
Build up of prior 2 years gains lost in several weeks. Spills over into the economy causing the Great Depression. Stock Market Crash of 1929
Hands off economics backed by the theory of free market. Laissez Faire Economics
Theory of economics that believs the state should stimulate economic growth and improve stability in the private sector - through, for example, interest rates, taxation and public projects. Keynesian Economics
historians most often use as a starting date the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. The end of the this period in the U.S is associated with the onset of the war economy of World War II, beginning around 1939 The Great Depression
Roosevelt vs Hoover. Roosevelt defeats Hoover in a landslide centering around the issue of the Depression. Election of 1932
Name that President Roosevelt gave to a series of economic programs he initiated between 1933 and 1936 with the goals of giving work to the unemployed, reform of business and financial practices, and recovery of the economy during The Great Depression. The New Deal
Agencies created during the new deal. Named because of the acronyms that were generated. AAA, CAA, CCC, TVA etc. Alphabet agencies
Established a system of old age, unemployment and survivors insurance funded by wage and payroll taxes. Did not cover health insurance and did not originally cover many of the most needy groups and individuals. Social Security Act of 1935
Severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American prairie lands from 1930 to 1940, caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques to prevent erosion. The Dust Bowl
the term used to symbolize a migrant who left the South, Midwest, and sometimes, Southeast United States to settle in masses to restart their lives in the region's agriculture and manufacturing industries. "Okies"
Senator from LA - proposed the "Share the Wealth" movement. Seizure of all fortunes over 5 million and 100% income tax over 1 million. Huey Long
Priest who proposed crank schemes of monetary inflation, nationalization of banks. He also preached bits of anti-Semitism. Father Coughlin
67 year old physician who proposed pension plan for those over 60. 10 million people signed petition for his Plan Dr. Frances Townsend
1933 - Head of the national Socialist "Nazi" movement in Germany. Adolph Hitler
National Socialist German Workers Party under Adolf Hitler. Nazism
Premier of Japanese military during WWII Hideki Tojo
Italian dictator/leader during WWII Benito Mussolini
Ideology rejecting perpetual peace and accepts man as a species constantly at war and those who rose to the challenge were noble. Believed that the greatest impact came from conquerors and expansionists. Facism
Allowed for sales of arms to non belligerent forces on a cash only basis and. Cash payment only and US ships could not transport arms. “Cash and Carry policy"
1941 - Allowed US to sell, lend, lease, or transfer ware materials to any country who's the President declared vital to that of the US. Lend/Lease Program
December 7th 1941 - Japanese war plans attacked US naval forces at in Hawaii. Sinking ships and killing 2400. Marks the US entrance into WWII Bombing of Pearl Harbor
1942 - Secret program to develop the atomic weapons that were then dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Manhattan Project
Father of the Atomic bomb. Scientific director for the Manhattan Project. Robert Oppenheimer
The Nazi eradication of 6 million European Jews. The Holocaust
1940-1945 - Largest of the Nazi concentration camp. Auschwitz
1945-1949 - Series of trials noted for the prosecution of political, military, and economic leaders of the Nazi party after WWII. Nuremburg War Crimes Trial
1945 - Founded after WWII to replace the league of Nations to stop wars between countries and provide a platform for dialogue for disputes. United Nations
1949 - Ratified after WWII addresses treatment of: 1. Sick and wounded Armed forces2. Sick and wounded naval Forces3. POW treatment 4. Protection of civilians during wartime. Geneva Conventions
Camps setup in the US after the bombing of Pearl Harbor where over 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans were relocated. Japanese Internment Camps
Most widely known and largest of the Japanese internment camps in the US during WWII. Manzanar
Cultural icon representing the 6 million women who first entered the workforce during WWII "Rosie the Riveter"
June 6th 1944 - Landing and invasion at the Beaches of Normandy. D-Day
Dec 16 - Jan 25th 1945 - Last major German offensive in WWII. The Germans attempted to split the offensive line between British and US forces. Battle of the Bulge
June 4th:7th - Most important battle of the pacific campaign US Navy defeats Japanese Navy 4 fleet carriers and 200 aviators. Battle of Midway
Feb 19:Mar 16 1945 - First American attack on Japanese home islands. Of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers present at the beginning of the battle, over 20,000 were killed and only 1,083 taken prisoner. Battle of Iwo Jima
Jan 16 1945 - Final major offensive of European Theatre of WWII. Before the battle was completed Hitler commits suicide. The Fall of Berlin
Leader of the United States during WWII. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Leader of Great Britain during WWII. Winston Churchill
Leader of France during WWII. Charles De Gaulle
Leader of the Soviet Union during WWII. Josef Stalin
During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Escalation of nuclear armaments between the US and Soviet Union post WWII. The "Cold War"
The division of Nazi West Germany into four occupied zones (US, British, French, and Soviet) Creation of Berlin Zones.
1948 - US supplied 2 Million Berlin Citizens with supplies to outlast the Soviet land blockade of Berlin. Berlin Airlift
1961 - Built to divide Eastern and Western Berlin to stop flow of refugees out of Soviet Berlin. The Berlin wall
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 - 1953. Established government based on the principles of Leninism. Josef Stalin
1945 - 1953 33rd President…Served in WWI and was Vice President for FDR. Called for the foundation of NATO. Harry S. Truman
1953 - 1961 34th President. Served in WWII and first Supreme commander of NATO. Kept pressure during cold war, started the space race, enlarged social security, and began the interstate highway program. Dwight D. Eisenhower
Theory that if land in one region became communist the surrounding areas would follow. The Domino Theory
1947 - Assertion that the US is committed to support free people everywhere who were resisting subjugation by communist attack or rebellion. Truman Doctrine
Philosophy that the if Russian expansion could be stopped/contained Russia would resort to peaceful negotiations. Containment
Philosophy of response to an attack with a disproportionate amount of force to the original attack. Threat of nuclear/atomic weapons to discourage ground forces. Massive retaliation
June 25th 1950 -1953 : War between North and South Korea. Conflict arose from attempts from Korean unification attempts Korean War
Leader of the US forces during the Korean war. Battles of Inchion and Pusan were deciding factors. General MacArthur
River at which UN forces met and were rerouted by the Chinese army during the Korean war. Yalu River
Dividing line between North and South Korea. 38th parallel (DMZ)
1957 - 1975 Competition of space exploration between the US and the Soviet Union. Satellites, humans into space, land on the moon. The Space Race
October 1957 - soviets launch first this artificial satellite. Sputnik
1958 - Established for space exploration in response to Soviet space program. NASA
1961-1975 - United States human spaceflight program. The Apollo Missions
October 1962 Soviets and US come close to nuclear war when JFK insists that Khrushchev remove 42 missiles he had secretly deployed to Cuba. Soviets sent agreement that they would remove missiles if US agreed to never invade Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis
Successor to Stalin, leader of Soviet Union during the Cuban missile crisis. Nikita Khrushchev
Cuban revolutionary and prime minister from 1959-76 and then president until 2008. Transformed Cuba into a socialist communist state. Fidel Castro
35th president of the US. Presided over Cuban Missile Crisis, entry into Vietnam, Nuclear test ban treaty, and entry into Civil rights movement. John Fitzgerald Kennedy
The Russian term for the political and economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet economy. Peristroika
The policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev. Glastnost
36th president of the US. Civil Rights, Great Society movement, Vietnam War. Passed the 1964 Civil rights act, 1965 Medicare, Voting Rights Act. Lyndon B. Johnson
1955 Murdered by segregationists for whistling at a white woman, his murder sparked the rise of the Civil Rights movement. Emmit Till
Dec 1 1955 - Rosa parks refused to give up seat to make room for a white woman. Actions led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Rosa Parks
1925-1965 African American Muslim after 1952 parole became leader of the Nation of Islam. Preached racism and violence against whites Malcolm X
1929 - 1968 Baptist minister and civil rights activists. Organized Montgomery Bus Boycott and March on Washington in 1963 Martin Luther King. Jr.
Large majority of people who do not express their opinions publicly. In Vietnam era theses were the Americans who did not join large demonstrations, counterculture, or speak out. Silent Majority
May 4, 1970 when an Ohio Army National Guard unit fired at students during a war protest on campus, killing four and wounding nine. Kent State Shootings
The mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens in South Vietnam, entirely civilians and some of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. My Lai Massacre
Feb 1968 - Viet Cong launches major offensive in South Vietnam. Political blow to the US campaign results in Lydon B. Johnson deciding to end escalation. Tet Offensive
36th President of the US. He continued Kennedys policy of economic and technical assistance. Lyndon B. Johnson
1964 - Congress passes resolution giving Johnson authority to use armed forces in Vietnam, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The thirty-seventh President of the United States (1969–1974), and the only president to ever resign the office. He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President of the United States. Richard M. Nixon
Nixon approved a secret bombing campaign of North Vietnamese positions in this area in March 1969 Cambodia
A series of American political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the indictment of several of Nixon's closest advisors, and ultimately his resignation on August 9, 1974. Watergate Scandals.
negotiated talks with the People's Republic of Chinna. Henry Kissinger
Created by: AaronHamilton