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INC1 Module 5

Integrated Science

Elements Substance made entirely from one type of atom; 118 elements
Atomic nucleus Protons and neutrons bound together in the center of the atom
Surrounds the nucleus Electrons
Why are atoms electrically neutral Same # of protons as electrons (+1 cancels -1)
Atomic # # of protons each atom of a given element contains
Mass # # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus; used to describe isotapes
Atomic Mass # of electrons, protons and neutrons
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) unit to measure the mass of an element; mass of one proton and neutron
Isotape All isotapes have the same # of protons, different number of neutrons
Shell model of the atom at least 7 shells; each shell can hold a limited number of electrons; inner holds 2; 2nd & 3rd holds 8 each; 4th and 5th holds 18 each, and 6th and 7th holds 32 each
Valance electrons Electrons in the outer shell; they are available to participate in chemical bonding
Determining the valance electrons using the periodic table groups, the columns
Covalent bonds sharing of electron pairs; same element oe close to each other in the periodic table; primarily between non-metals
Ionic bonds electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions (cation) and the negative ion (anion); one electron donor and one electron acceptor (seesaw)
organic compound Molecules associated with living organisms; any compound containing a carbon atom
inorganic compound Non living; any compound lacking carbon atoms
Hydrocarbon organic compound consisting entirely of H and C
Pure substance consists of only one type of atom, molecule, or ion e.g. tin, water, table salt
Mixture collection of two or more atoms, molecules or ions that are physically mixed
Heterogeneous mixture contains substances that are not evenly distributed e.g. bowl of cereal, pizza
Homogeneous mixture substances are evenly distributed e.g. honey, air
Solution homogeneous mixture consisting of ions or molecules e.g. vodka, salt water, sugar water
Solids occupy a constant amount of space and does not readily deform
Liquids occupy space; form changes readily
Gas has neither volume nor shape; assumes shape/volume of the container
When an arrangement melts molecules begin to move around more and more; they spread out
When an arrangement freezes molecules slow down and become more compact
Addition of heat energy; Boiling causes molecules move/vibrate quickly; they separate and create gas
Conductor materials electric current can flow freely; outer electrons are loosely bound and move freely through material
Insulators prevent the flow of electrons; outer electrons tightly bound
Metals solid at room temp; has a density of 19.3 grams per milliliter e.g. gold, zinc, sodium
Nonmetals solid at room temp; has a density of 3.5 grams per milliliter e.g. oxygen, carbon
Metalloids silicon, arsenic
Minerals rocks and inorganic materially; naturally ocurring
Silicates most common mineral group; contains oxygen and silica; 95% of Earths surface crust e.g. quartz, talc, garnet
Non-silicates usually not rock forming minerals; no silicates e.g. calcite, dolomite, gypsum, alabaster, copper, silver, gold
Igneous rocks crystalline solids for directly for the cooling of magna; names represent composition and texture e.g. granite, lava, pumice
Metamorphic rocks "meta" (change) "morph" (form) any rock can become this; e.g. slate, schist, gneiss, marble
Sedimentary rocks they are secondary rock; they are the result of accumulation of small pieces broken off of pre-existing rocks e.g. conglomerate, limestone, dolomite, travertine, shale
Seismic waves waves of energy caused by the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. They are the energy that travels through the earth and is recorded on seismographs.
P-waves primary waves; fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station; can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth
S-waves secondary waves; which is the second wave you feel in an earthquake; can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium.
Composition of earth inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
Inner core solid iron and nickel, dense
Outer core liquid; mostly iron
Mantle thickest layer of earth, hot rock
Crust solid and rocky, continental and oceanic
Happens in the outer core when the earth spins creates a magnetic field by moving electrical current
Created by: kmac3936