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Internal Parasites 6

Internal Parasites of Dogs from Chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
The vet tech may be asked to perform a variety of diagnostic procedures to locate endoparasites, what do they do? These procedures usually detect the adult stages of a parasite or their eggs or larval stages in the animals feces, urine, or blood.
Examples of Whipworms? Trichuris Vulpis.
Examples of Unrinary Roundworms? Canine kidney worm also know as Dicotophyma renale.
Exapmles of Respiratory roundworms? (These parasites are found in the lungs of catte and sheep) Dictyocaulus and Muellerius capillaris.
Examples of blood nematodes? Dirofilaria immitis, the canine heartworm.
Spirometra? The zipper tapeworm. Each proglottid has a central spiral uterus and a uterine pore through which the eggs are released.
What do the eggs of spirometra look like? The eggs have a distinct operculum at one end of the pole of the shell.
Diphyllobothrium? Broad fish tapeworm. They continually release eggs until they exhaust their uterine contents. These eggs resemble that of a fluke and are light brown in color.
Trematodes:
Platynosomum fastosum? Lizard poisoning fluke of cats. Inhabits the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and less commonly the small intestines.
Nanophyetus salmincola? Salmon poisoning fluke of dogs. Inhabits the small intestine and serves as a vector for rickettsial agents, which produce salmon poisoning and Elokomin flukefever in dogs.
What is the desription of N. salmincola? Has a indistinct operculum and a small blunt point at the end of the opposite side of the operculum.
Alaria? Intestinal fluke of dogs and cats. The larva are large, golden brown and operculated.
Protozoans:
Isospora? Parasite of the small intestine in both cats and dogs. Clinical syndrome known as coccidosis, most common disease in puppies and kitten.
What is the diagnostic stage of this parasite? The oocyst is the diagnostic stage that is observed in a fecal flotation of fresh feces.
What are examples of canine coccidians? Isospora canis, Isospora ohioensis, and Isospora wallacei.
What are exapmles of feline coccidians? Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta.
What is the prepatent peroid? 7 to 14 days.
Toxoplasma gondii? Intestinal coccidian of cats. Diagnosed by using the standard fecal flotation. PPP ranges from 5 to 24 days.
Cryptosporidium? Coccidian parasite of the small intestines that infects a variety of animals, including dogs, cats, and young cattle.
How is Cryptosporidium diagnosed? By standard fecal flotation.
This parasite can be zoonotic, True or False? True.
What is another way of detecting this parasite? Fecal smears with staining maybe helpful in spotting the oocyst.
Sarcoystis? Coccidian parasite found in cats and dogs. Oocyst are sporulated when passed in the feces. Recovered in a standard fecal flotation.
Giardia? Flagellated protozoan recovered from cats and dogs with diarrhea.
What are the 22 morphologic forms of Giardia? 1. A motile feeding stage, the trophozite. 2. A resistant cyst stage.
Mature parasites are seldomly found because they are generally hidden within the body of the animal. The only way to detect them is by using immunologic test, performing a necropsy, or postmostem dissection.
Some eggs of parasites are similar how would you differential between them? Parasites with similar eggs usually are differentiated by fecal cultures and larval identification.
What is the perpatent period? The time elapsed between intial infection with a paradite until the infection can be detected by using common diagnostic procedures.
What are parasites that live inside the animals body? Endoparasites.
What is an Definitive host? A definitive host habors the adult, mature, or sexual stages of a parasite. Ex: A dog is the definitive host of D. immitis.
What is an intermediate host? A host that habors the larvae, immature, or asexual stages of a parasite. Ex: A mosquito for D. immitis.
How does the diagnostic stage of a parasite leave the host? Through excreta, such as feces or urine, or may be transmitted ffrom the bloodstream to its nexts host by an arthropod, such as a mosquito.
What are blood protozoa (hemoprotozoa)? Parasites that are found in blood samples and are the most common.
What is an intestinal protozoa and what are some examples? Parasites that are found in fecal samples. Examples are Babesia bigemina, the tear shaped hemoprotozoa that is found in the RBC of infected cattle and is transmitted by a tick.
What are trematodes? They are flatworms with unsegmented leaf shaped bodies, also called flukes. In domestic animals most adults flukes are found in the intestinal tract, the liver or even the lungs.
What does hermaphroditic mean? Having male and female sex organs, and they lay eggs that are passed through the feces.
What is a miracidium? The larval stage of a fluke.
While the mircacidium in the snail it develops into a sporocyst, which then produces many tiny internal structures called radiae. Each radiae may produce may internal structures called cercariae.
Definne Sporocyst? Larval stages of a digenic trematode that develops in a mollusk intermediate host.
Define Redia? A secondary larval form of some digenic trematodes that develops within a mollusk intermediate host.
Define Cercaria? Life cycle stage of trematodes that develops in the intermediate host.
Decribe 3 pathways for the cercariae to enter the definitve host. Develop into a metacercaria and encyst and ingested by definitive host. It may be ingested by a 2nd intermediate host and become encysted within that host, which is than ingested by the definitive host. May directly penetrate the skin of the host.
What are Cestodes? Are tapeworms but also called flatworms. They arehermaphroditic. They are ribbion like and divide into long chains of proglottids.
What is an proglottid? Segments connected like trian cars behind a scolex or "head", by which the tapeworm attaches to the hosts' intestinal wall.
Proglottids often contain eggs when they are passed into the feces. Eggs contain hexacanth embryosl, which are internal structures with six hooks.
An intermediate host like a rabbit ingest the hexacanth embryos. The embryos grow within the tissue of the intermediate host and develop into a "bladderworm" stage (fluid filled larval stage). The definitive host ingests the intermediate host and becomes infected.
Examples of tapeworms are? Taenia pisiformis, the canine taeniid tapeworm; Multiceps multiceps, coenurus tapeworms.
In some tapeworms the larval stage within the vertebrate host is a hydatid cyst examples of these tapeworm would be? Echinococcus multiceps, and Echinococcus multocularis.
What are Nematodes? Referred to as roundworms and are the most important group of parasites. They have seperate sexes (male and female). Eggs or larval are recovered within the feces.
Exapmles include? Large roundworms like Toxocara canis and Toxocaris leonina.
Examples of Hookworms include: Ancylostoma caninum, and Uncinaria stenocephala.
Parasites of the Intestinal Tract in Domestic Animals: Dogs and Cat Endoparasites.
Nematodes:
Spirocerca lupi? The esophageal worm. Forms nodules in the esophageal wall of dogs and cats. Sometime found in nodules in the stomach of cats. Eggs are a unique paperclip shape. The PPP is 6 months.
Physaloptera? Stomach worms of dogs and cats. Sometimes found in the lumen and/or small intestines. Firmly attach to the mucosal surface of the stomach, suck blood. Symptoms include vomiting, anorexia, and dark tarry stools.
What is the PPP for Physaloptera? 56 to 83 days.
Aonchotheca putorii (Caoillaria putorii)? Referred to as the gastric capillarid of cats. Mainly parasitizes minks but has been reported in cats.
Ollulanus tricuspis? Feline trichostronygle. Associated with vomiting in cats. Identified by examination of cat vomitus. The infective third stage larvae mature to adults in the cats stomach. Transmission occurs through ingestion of vomitus from infected cats.
Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxocaris leonina? Ascarids of cats and dogs. Found in the small intestines of cats and dogs. Eggs are spherical with a deeply pigmented center and a rough, pitted outer shell.
What are the PPP for T. canis and T. Leonina? Toxocara canis is 21 to 35 days, and Toxocaris leonina is 74 days.
Ancylostoma caninum? Canine Hookworm.
Ancylostoma tubaeforme? Feline Hookworm.
Ancylostoma braziliense? Canine and feline hookworm.
Uncinaria stenocephala? Northern canine hookworm.
What kind of things can a hookworm infection produce? Can produce servre anemia in young kittens and puppies, can be a serious problem in kennels. The ppp depends on the species of hookworms.
Strongyloides? Intestinal threadworms. Males DO NOT EXIST. In dogs the eggs hatch within the intestines, releaseing first stage larvae. The PPP is 8 to 14 days.
Trichuris Vulpis? Canine whipworm. Resides in the cecum and colon of the host. Eggs are described as trchinelloid or trichuroid. Has a thick yellow brown, symmetric shell with polar plugs on each side. PPP is 70 to 90 days.
Cestodes: Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Multiceps multiceps, Echinicoccus granulosus, Spirometra, Diphyllobothrium.
Dipylidium caninum? Most common tapeworm found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Cats and dogs become infected by ingesting the intermediate host, the flea. This tapeworm has motile terminal, gavid proglottids, which ususally are found on the feces.
Taenia pisiformis? Canine taeniids. Have hexacanth embryos. Eggs contain a single oncosphere with three pairs of hooks.
Multiceps multiceps/ Multiceps serialis? Tapeworms of the small intestines of canids.
Echinococcus granulosus/ Echinococcus multilocularis? Associated with unilocular and multiocular hydatid disease. These parasites are very zoonotic. To achieve the best diagnosis the adult tapeworm should be taken from the hosts intestinal tract. They are tiny worms.
Echinococcus granulosus is a hydratid cyst for dogs. Echinococcus multilocularis is the hydatid cyst for cats.
Spirometra? Zipper tapeworms. Each proglottid has a central spiral uterus and uterine pore through which the eggs are released. The eggs have a distinct operculum at one end of the pole of the shell.
Diphyllobothrium? Broad fish tapeworm. Continually release eggs until they exhaust their uterine contents. Eggs resemble that of a fluke and are light brown in color.
Nematodes of the Circulatory system. Dirofilaria immitis
Dirofilaria immitis? Canine Heartworm. Adults found in right ventricle, pulmonary artery and fine branches of the aorta. PPP is 6 months. Diagnosed by observing microfilaria in blood samples.
Trematodes of the circulatory system. Heterobilharzia americanum.
Heterobilharzia americanum? Canine schistosome. Blood fluke that affects the mesenteric vein of the small and large intestines and portal veins of dogs. Shown as bloody diarrhea, emaciation and anorexia. Conatins a mirocidium. PPP is 84 days.
Protozoans of the circulatory system. Babesia canis, Cytciuxzoon felis, and Hepatozoon canis and Heterobilharzia americanum.
Babesia canis? Intracellular parasite found with in the erthrocytes of dogs.
Cytciuxzoon felis? Intracellular parasite found in RBC of cats.
Hepatozoon canis and Heterobilharzia americanum? Intracellular malaria like parasite affecting dogs. Protozoan parasites are found in the leukocytes.
Pentastomids (Tongueworms) of the respiratory system. Linguatula serrata.
Linguatula serrata? Canine tongueworm. Affects the nasal and respiratory passages of dogs. (Pentastomids resemble helminths but are actually related to the arthropods.)
Nematodes of the Respiratory system. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Filaroides osleri/ Filaroides hirthi/ Filaroides milksi, Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila), Eucoleus boehmi.
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus? Feline lungworm. Adults live in the terminal respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts. Form small egg nest or nodules. Characteristic larval on fecal flotation or Baermann technique can determine their presence. PPP is 30 days.
Filaroides osleri, Filaroides hirth, and Filaroides milksi? Canine lungworms. Found in the trachea, lung parenchyma and bronchiole of canids. First stage larvae are immediately infective for the canine definitive host. PPP is 10 weeks.
Eucoleus aerophilus (Capillaria aerophila)? Capillarid nematode found in the trachea and bronchi of both dogs and cats. PPP is 40 days. Eggs are often confused with those of Trichuris.
Eucoleus boehmi? Found in the nasal cavity and frontal sinuses of dogs. Its eggs are smaller and have a smoother outer surface. This parasite can be detected by standard fecal flotation.
Trematodes of the Respiratory System. Paragonimus kellicotti.
Paragonimus kellicotti? Lung fluke of dogs. Hermaphroditic adult flukes occur in cystic spaces within the lung parenchyma of both dogs and cats. Eggs found in sputum or feces. Eggs are yellow brown with an operculum. PPP is 30 to 36 days.
Created by: BananaGirl05 on 2009-01-15



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