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Anatomy VTNE Review

anatomy deals with the form and structure of the body and it's parts (what things look like and where they're located)
physiology deals with functions of the body and its parts (how things work and what they do)
What is the idea of bilateral symmetry of the animal body? the left and right halves are essentially mirror images of one another and single structures are toward midline
What are the 2 main body cavities in the mammalian body? dorsal and ventral body cavity
dorsal body cavity contains the brain and spinal cord and their cavities
ventral body cavity contains the soft organs of the body
How are the organs of the ventral body cavity divided? the diaphragm divides into the cranial thoracic cavity and the caudal abdominal cavity
pleura thin membrane that covers all organs
visceral pleura pleura that covers the organs
parietal pleura pleura that covers the the entire cavity
pluritis/pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
peritoneum lines the abdominal organs
peritonitis painful inflammation of the peritoneum mainly resulting from a wound or rupture of the GI tract
cell the most basic unit
tissues similar cells grouped together
organs groups of tissues working together for the same purpose
systems organs with a common set of activities
homeostasis maintenance of a dynamic equallibrium in the body (balance)
prokaryotes cells with no nucleus
eukaryotes cells with a true nucleus
cells membrane/plasma membrane encloses the cell
cytoplasm fluid portion of the cells that suspends the organelles; enzymes and other proteins are produced here
organelles small "organs" that carry out function in the cell
micro-villa present in the cells of the digestive tract, projections that come out of the cell that help in absorption
cilia present in cells of the respiratory tract where a projection from the cell prevents dust and foreign bodies from entering the lungs
ribosomes protein synthesis and very numerous
mitochondria produces ATP (energy)
endoplasmic reticulum transport and storage
golgi body sorts and packages proteins
lysosomes digestive enzymes
peroxisomes detoxify molecules
nucleus control center of the cell, maintains heredity function and controls cellular activities during protein synthesis
true or false: everything inside the cell other than the nucleus is genetic material. false
True or False: mitochondria contain the DNA, RNA and the enzymes possible to make protein. false
True or False: Protein intended for extra-cellular use and in the plasma membrane is synthesized in ribosomes evenly distributed throughout the cytoskeleton. true
What three structures are found in the mammalian cells despite three billion years of evolution? cytoplasm, nucleus, and cell membrane
What are the principal components of cytoplasm? cytoskeleton, organelles, inclusions, and cytosol
How many mitochondria are in the average mammalian cell? it depends on the cells activity level (highly active cells require more mitochondria)
What do ribosomes produce? proteins
The outer layer of the nuclear membrane in continuous with what? the cell membrane
What are the 4 types of tissues? epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle
gross anatomy the study of economic structures that can be seen with the naked eye
microanatomy/histology microscopic study of organs
What is the most abundant tissue in the body? connective
fibroblasts cells that produce ordinary connective tissue
fibrocytes less active adult cells
What kind of tissue forms tendons? dense regular connective tissue
What kind of tissue forms ligaments and the dermis of the skin? dense irregular connective tissue
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue? skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
What is the first stage of tissue healing and repair? inflammation
infection inflammatory response from viruses, bacteria, and fungi
Is scar tissue as strong as the original tissue? no
excretions substances the leave the body
keratin protective, waterproof substance
pathogens bacteria and viruses
mucin thick, sticky substance of glycoproteins and proteglandins; when water is added it turns to mucus
duct carries secretions to deposit site
edema spaces in loose connective tissue fill with body fluid in trauma
adipose fat
cartilage tough, specialized connective tissue
mucus membranes line organs and have access to the outside environment
True or False: Connective tissue has no direct blood supply and epithelial tissue is vascularized. False: Connective tissue is vascular and epithelial tissue is avascular.
Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue that contains an abundant supply of nerves. False: Cartilage does not contain nerves
True of False: bone is specialized connective that is well vascularized, protects vital organs such as the brain and heart, acts as a calcium reserve, and is the site of blood cell production and fat storage. True
True or False: Mucus membranes line the walls and cover the organs fill closed body cavities. False
What structure acts as a partial barrier between the epithelial cells and the underlying connective tissue? the basement membrane
What type of membrane lines the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts? mucus
What is the first process in inflammation? vasoconstriction to control hemorrhaging
os, osteo bone
osteocytes bone cells
What is the 2nd hardest structure in the body? bone
What are the 5 main functions of bone? 1. support 2. protection 3. leverage 4. storage 5. hematopoiesis
What is the purpose of calcetonin? prevents hypercalcemia by depositing excess calcium in bones
What is the purpose of parathyroid hormone? prevents hypocalcemia by withdrawing calcium from bones
cancellous bone spongy bone that is filled with marrow
compact bone heavy, dense, outside layer of bone
osteoblasts cells that form bone then supply minerals to harden it
osteocytes mature bone cells
osteoclasts remodel bone cells when needed
long bones longer than wide
short bones shaped like cubes or marsh mellows
flat bones thin and flat
irregular bones don't fit into the other categories (misc)
What fills the space inside bones? marrow
red bone marrow forms blood cells
yellow bone marrow adipose but can revert back to red
condyle large, round, articular surface
head spherical surface on end of a long bone
facet flat surface
process all lumps, bumps, and projections in a bone
foramen hole in a bone; usually for a nerve or vessel to pass
fossa sunken area in bone
brachycephalic short faced
dolicocephalic long faced
maxillary upper jaw
lacrimal from medial orbit of eye
hyoid bone h-shaped and supports base of tongue, pharynx, larynx, and helps animal swallow
c1 (atlas) first vertebra that helps hold up the head
c2 (axis) has dens that hook into atlas
ribs flat bones that form the lateral walls of the thorax
sternum breastbone that forms the floor of the thorax
scapula most proximal bone of the thoracic limb
humerus long bone of the upper arm
What bones make up the antebrachium? radius and ulna
radius main weight bearing bone of the forearm
ulna helps form the elbow
carpus 2 rows of carpal bones
metacarpal bones extend distally from distal row to proximal phalanges
phalanges bones of the digits
seasmoid bones found in some tendons; irregular bones
How many bones does the pelvis begin as? 3
ilium cranial most part of pelvis;wings of pelvis
ischium caudal most pelvic bone
pubis smallest of pelvic bones that forms cranial portion of pubic floor
acetabulum 3 pelvic bones that form this ball and socket joint
obturator foramen holes in the pelvis to lighten it
femur long bone in thigh
patella knee cap
What is the largest seasmoid bone in the body? the patella
fabellae 2 small seasmoid bones in the calf muscle in cats and dogs
tibia main weight bearing bone in the lower leg
fibula thin, but complete bone that parallels tibia
tarsal bone ankle (hock)
metatarsal bones similar to metacarpal bones
os cordis bone of the heart in cattle or sheep that support it
os penis bone in penis that supports it in dog, walrus, beavers, and raccoon
os rostri bone to strengthen the nose of swine
joints junctions between bones
arthro, articular joint
fibrous joints completely immobile
cartilaginous joints slightly mobile
synovial joints freely movable
flexion decreases angle
extension increases angle
adduction toward medial plane
abduction away from the medial plane
rotation twisting on axis
circumduction distal portion moves in a circular motion
hinge joints one joint surface swivels around another
gliding joint rocking motion from 1 bone to another
pivot joint one bone rotates around another
ball and socket joint permits all synovial movement
What are the 3 types of muscles? skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
myo muscle
sarco muscle cells
sarcoplasm cytoplasm of the muscle cell
voluntary striated muscle skeletal muscle
tendon attach muscles to bones
aponeuroses broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue
origin of muscle a muscles more stable attachment site; less movable
insertion of muscle site of muscle that undergoes movement
Do muscles work alone? rarely
prime mover (agonist) directly produces desired movement
antagonist directly opposes prime mover
synergist contracts at the same time as the prime mover
fixator muscle stabilizes joints to allow movements to happen
What are the 7 ways skeletal muscles are named? action, shape, location, number of heads, directions of fibers, attachment sites, and selected muscles
How many nuclei per cell do skeletal muscles have? 100+
involuntary striated muscle cardiac muscle
What muscle contracts with wave-like contractions? cardiac
non-striated involuntary muscle smooth muscle
What are the 2 forms of smooth muscle? 1. large sheets of cells in some hollow organs 2. small discrete groups of cells
What is the muscle of mastication? masseters
What muscle contracts during inspiration? diaphragm
cutaneous muscle thin muscle in the connective tissue beneath the skin
brachium upper arm region
viscera soft internal organs
neuro nervous system
What are the 2 divisions of the nervous system? central and peripheral
peripheral nervous system cord like nerves that link the CNS to the rest of the body
What 3 categories do the activities of the nervous system fall into? sensory, motor, or integrating
neurons basic functional units of the nervous system
True or false: Neurons have a high requirement for oxygen. True
neuroglia (glial cells) support and protect neurons but are not involved in the central cell body
dendrites recieve stimuli or impulses from other neurons and conduct it to the cell body
axon conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body to a neuron or effector cell
effector cell cell that does something when stimulated
myelin fatty substance that covers that axons
afferent nerve impulses conduct nerve impulses toward the CNS
efferent nerve impulses carry nerve impulses away from CNS
somatic nervous system voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system self-regulating system (smooth and cardiac muscle)
cerebrum largest part of the brain
gyri folds of the brain
sulci shallow grooves of the brain
fissures deep grooves of the brain
cerebellum part of the brain just caudal to the cerebrum; responsible for balance, coordination, posture, and reflexes
diencephalon passageway between cerebellum and brain stem
brain stem connects the brain and the spinal cord
What are the 3 things that make up the brain stem? pons, medulla oblongata, and the mid-brain
meninges connective tissue layers that surround the brain and spinal cord;also supply blood, oxygen, and nutrients to tissues of the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid fluid that protects that brain and spinal cord from hard surfaces of the skull and spinal cord
blood-brain barrier barrier that separates the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue
cranial nerves special set of 12 nerves that originate directly from the brain
resting state when the neuron is not stimulated
cerebral cortex the outer layer of the brain
fenstrations openings
central canal center of the spinal canal
True or false: Neurons have a good reproductive ability. False
True or False: Spinal nerves are in the CNS? True
True or False: In fight or flight, activity in the GI tract is increased. True
Axons in the CNS are covered by what? oligodendrites
When you pet a dog, what receptors send a sensation from the skin to that brain? afferent
What part of the brain is responsible for learning, intelligence, and awareness? cerebrum
Damage to this part of the brain can result in rapid death. brain stem
Where is the blood-brain barrier found? the capillaries
Somatic reflex arcs include what? skeletal muscles
What is a common reflex used to assess the depth of anesthesia? pupillary light reflex
What is the purpose of the endocrine system? helps maintain homeostasis in the body
Where are hormones produced? in the endocrine glands
What other system does the endocrine system typically work with? the nervous system
What product is produced in the endocrine system? hormones
What is the basic unit of the endocrine system? endocrine glands
Where does the endocrine glands secrete its hormones? directly into the blood stream (ductless)
Where do exocrine glands secrete their products? onto the epithelial surfaces through ducts
What does a hormone do when it reaches it's target? it changes some of the cell's activity
How is hormone secretion controlled? a thermostat-like system; when hormone levels fall the body secretes more
Where is the hypothalamus located? in the brain-part of the diencephalon
What does that hypothalamus regulate? appetite control, temperature regulation, and wake/sleep cycles
What hormones are the anterior pituitary responsible for? growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulation hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulation hormone, luteinizing hormone, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone
growth hormone growth, metabolism and increasing sugars
prolactin triggers and maintains lactation in females
thyroid stimulating hormone growth and development of the thyroid gland, and causing the thyroid gland to produce hormones
adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates growth and development of the adrenal cortex and the release of some of it's hormones
follicle stimulating hormone Females: growth and development of the ovaries Males: spermogenesis
luteinizing hormone completes process of follicle development on the female
melanocyte stimulating hormone color changing in fish, reptiles and amphibians
Does the posterior pituitary produce hormones? no-stores hormones produced in the hypothalamus
anti-diuretic hormone prevents dieresis- loss of large amounts of water through the urine
oxytocin uterine contractions at time of birth and at mating causes contractions to help sperm to follicle
thyroid gland consists of 2 lobes on both sides of the larynx
thyroid hormone heats body and helps metabolism; also effects growth in young animals
Calcitonin maintains homeostasis in blood calcium levels by lowering calcium levels in blood in times of hypercalcemia
parathyroid hormone opposes calcetonin by raising calcium levels in blood when hypocalcemia threatens
What are the adrenal glands named for? the close proximity to the kidneys
glucocorticoid hormones effect blood glucose levels-typically increase
mineralcortocoid hormones regulate mineral levels in the body
pancreas long, flat organ located near the duodenum
insulin lets glucose and amino acids be absorbed into cells
glucagon has the opposite effects of insulin and raises blood glucose
What 2 hormones do the testes produce? androgens and testosterone
What 2 hormones do the ovaries produce? estrogen and progestins
What hormone does the kidneys produce and what does it do? erythropoietin-stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBCs
What hormone does the stomach produce and what does it do? gastrin- acts on stomach walls to produce acid and enzymes to aid in digestion
What important hormone does the placenta produce and what does it do? chorionic gonadotropin- tells +/- on a pregnancy test (indicates pregnancy)
What system controls hormone secretion? negative feedback system
What is another name for the pituitary gland? hypophysis
What is another name for the growth hormone? somatotropic hormone
A deficiency in the anti-diuretic hormone causes what disease? diabetes insipidus
homeostasis balance
mediastinum space between the 2 pleural cavities that contain the heart, lungs, trachea, esophagus and some vascular structures
What is the outer layer of the heart called? pericardium
What is the inner sac of the heart called? myocardium
Between myocardium and the lining of the heart is thin layer of lining. What is this called? endocardium
Where is the base of the heart located? the top of the heart
Where is the apex of the heart located? bottom of the heart
auricles largest most visible part of the atria (look like ears over the ventricles)
sulci (of the heart) grooves separating ventricles
Are the ventricle walls or the atria walls of the heart thicker and why? ventricle walls are thicker because they have to pump blood to the rest of the body.
aorta largest artery in the body
ccardiac cycle each contraction of the heart
systole heart muscles contract and blood is ejected
diastole heart relaxes and blood refills
SA Node pacemaker of the hear; regulates heartbeat
What is different about a fetuses circulation? Since the mother supplies oxygen and nutrients, the fetusus' blood supply bypasses it's lungs
When does a fetus's lungs inflate? at birth when it takes it's first breath
Where is the mitral valve located? left side
Where is the tricuspid valve located? right side
cardiac output amount of blood that leaves the heart that is determined by stroke volume and heart reate (sroke volume*HR)
stroke volume amount of blood ejected with each contraction
heartrate how often the heart contracts
What affects cardiac output? blood pressue and fight or flight response
arteries take blood away from the heart
veins take blood to the heart
True or False: The mediastinum is also called the intrapleural space? true
What is the heart muscle called? myocardium
What component of the heart has the thickest walls? left ventricle
True or False: The SA Node is unable to repolarize itself. False
What are specialized fibers that conduct electrical currents? purkinje fibers
What blood vessels do not have muscles in their walls? capillaries
What effect does general anesthesia have on the cardiovascular system? decreases cardiac output
external respiration occurs in the lungs-exchange of oxygen and co2
internal respiration occurs all over the body-exchange of oxygen and co2in the blood between tissues and cells
phonation voice production; begins in the larynx and vocal cords
olfactory sense of smell
What organs are included in the upper respiratory tract? nose, pharynx, larynx, and trachea
nares nostrils
turbinates thin, scroll bones that occupy the nasal passages and help warm air
paranasal sinuses outpouches of pasal passages contained within the skull bones (named for what bone they are found in)
epiglottis covers the opening of the larynx when the animal swallows
glottis opening of the larynx formed by cartilages
What is included in the lower repiratory tract? bronchi and alveoli
bronchi tree from the bronchi to the alveolo
Where does air go after entering the lungs? bronchus-bronchi-bronchioles-alveolar ducts-alveolar sacs
alveoli oxygen and co2 are exchaned between blood and air
diaphragm thin domelike sheet of muscle separtes thoarcic cavity from abdominal cavity
thorax chest cavity
pleura covers organs in thoracic cavity
visceral layer of pleuara covers organs
parietal layer or pleura lines the thoracic cavity
inspiration diaphargm flattens
expiration diaphragm goes back to its dome shape
tidal volume volume of air inspired and expired in 1 breath
minute volume volume of air inspired and expired in 1 minute
residual volume volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration
What part of the lungs lie directly on the diaphargm? the base
Where does the digestive system run? from the mouth to the anus
What are other names for the digestive system? digestive tract, gastrointestinal tract (GI), or alimentary canal, or gut
herbivores plant eating
omnivores meat and plant eating
carnivores eat only meat
mono-gastric single or simple stomach
ruminants mixing or fermentators; have3 multiple compartments in the stomach
What are the 5 basic functions of the digestive system? 1. ingest food and water 2. digest and absorb food and water 3. excrete waste products 4. secrete hormones and enzymes 5. convert nutrients to energy
peristalsis contractions that move contents along the digestive tract
segmentation contractions that mix the contents of the digestive tract
labial lips
What are the 3 main salivary glands that most domestic animals have? 1. parotid 2. mandibular 3. sublingual
maxilla contains the upper arcade of teeth
mandible contains the lower arcade of teeth
occlusal surface where teeth come together or chewing surface of teeth
incisors grasping teeth
canines tearing teeth (tusks in some animals)
premolars cutting teeth (cheek teeth)
molars grinding teeth
lingual surface faces the tongue
palatal surface faces the hard palate
labial surface faces the lips
buccal surface faces the cheeks
What is the feline dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1
What is the canine dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3
apex of a tooth tip of the tooth where the root and nerve enter
pulp center of the tooth
dentin surrounds the tooth pulp and protects it
cementum covers the root tip and helps fasten it securely in its socket
enamel covers the crown of the tooth and is the hardest surface in the body
Where does the esophagus enter the stomach? the cardia
What shape is the mono-gastric stomach? c-shaped
fundus blind pouch that will expand to hold more food as it is swallowed
body middle portion of the stomach
pyloric antrum grinds up swallowed food and regulates hydrochloric acid
pylorus sphincter to regulate movement of chyme to duodenum and prevent back flow
How many stomachs does the ruminant have? 1 true stomach and 3 forestomachs
reticulum smallest and most cranial compartment; honeycomb like compartment increases absorption
hardware disease irritation of the lining of the reticulum caused by metal or wire
rumen large, fermentive vat that processes plant-like material into energy
omasum has many muscular folds in the lining
abomasum true stomach of the ruminant
How is a young ruminants stomach different that a grown ruminant? it acts as a mono-gastric stomach
Where are the majority of nutrients absorbed in the GI system? small intestine
What are the 3 portions of the small intestine? duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
villi fold in the small intestine that help absorb nutrients
micro-villi fold on the villi that absorb nutrients
brush boarder layer of micro-villi
What are the 3 sections of the large intestines? cecum, colon, and rectum
Is the cecum more developed in carnivores or ruminants? ruminants
Where is bile mainly produces and stored? produced: hepatic ducts in liver stored: gall bladder
What organ plays a part in both lubrication and digestion? salivary glands
What are deciduous teeth? baby teeth
Milk in what compartment can cause serious disruption in normal fermentation? rumen
What disease is characterized by decreased movement of ingesta in the intestines? ileus
What vitamins are fat soluble? A, D, E, and K
Where are bile acids made? in the liver
These salivary glands are located just ventral to the ear. parotid salivary glands
Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. ascites
This salivary gland is located just medial to the shafts of the mandible. sublingual salivary glands
Loss of muscle tone in the esophagus can lead to this disease. Megaesophagus
What are the 6 functions of the kidneys? 1. blood filtration 2. re-absorption 3. secretion 4. fluid balance 5. pH regulation 6. hormone production
hilus indented side of the kidney where blood, lymph vessels, nerves, and ureters enter and leave
renal pelvis funnel shaped area in the hilus where urine forms
renal cortex outer portion of kidney
medulla inner portion of kidney around renal pelvis
nephron the basic functional unit of the kidney; made up of hundreds of thousands
What hormones regulate urine volume? antidiuretic and aldosterone
polyuria increased urine volume
Where do the ureters enter the bladder? the neck
Insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone can result in what? polyuria
Production of little urine Oliguria
meisos process of cell division the produces reporoductive and ensures that the genetic makeup of each animal is different
when is the DNA of an animal the same? clones and identical twins
chromosomes thread-like accumulations of DNA in the nucleus of the cell; contains the genetic material of the cell
diploid chromosomes total number of the chromosomes in the nucleus (number is paired)
sex chromosomes determine gender X, Y
diploid chromosome number reduced number of chromosomes in the reproductive cell
mitosis when all other body cells divide
spermatogenesis production of spermatozoa in the semineferous tubules
What sex chromosomes do sperm have? 1/2 of the spermatozoa produced have an X chromosome and 1/2 of the spermatozoa produced have a Y chromosome to determine gender
oogenesis production of ova in the follicles
When is the number of oocytes in the female determined? shortly after birth
What are the 3 main functions of the male reportductive system? 1.) Produce sex hormones 2.)Produce sperm 3.) Deliver sperm to the female system at the appropriate time
testes male gonads where reproductive cells are formed
scrotum houses the testicles
What are the 2 main functions of the testes? 1. spermatogenesis 2. hormone production
spermatozoan long thin cells with 3 main parts
What are the 3 main parts of a sperm cell? 1. head 2. midsection 3. tail
acrosome caplike structure in the head of the sperm that breaks into the oocyte
What is the part of the sperm that contains all of the power? the midsection
inguinal rings at or soon after birth the testicles descend through these into the scrotum
gubernaculum bad of tissue that hold the testicles
cremaster muscles adjust testis position closer to the body or further based on temperature
spermatic cord links testis with rest of the body
paniform plexus tiny meshwork of veins tat supply bloodflow around testicles
vas deferens moves sperm to the epididymis
urethrea carries urine and sperm out of the body
prostate gland surrounds the urethra; some of its secretions carry into it
What is the only reproductive accesory organ in dogs. prostate
bulbourethral gland secrete lubrications into the urethra before ejaculation
penis male breeding organ
What is the largest part of the male penis? body
What part of the penis do cats have spines on? glans of penis or tip
prepuce sheath of skin enclosing penis when it is not erect
os penis bone in the penis of dogs, walrus, and racoons
bulb of the glans swells when dogs mate and allows "the tie"
sigmoid flexure non-erect penis of the bull, ram, and boar
What are the 5 main functions of the female reproductive system? 1.) recieve male reproductive cells, 2.) furnishes a site for the ovum 3.) provides an environment for the embryo/fetus 4.) carries pregnancy 5.) pushes the fetus into the world
ovaries female gonads
What are the 2 main functions of the ovaries? production of cells and production of hormones
oogenesis process where ova are produced in the follicle of the ovaries
estrogens hormone that causes behavioral that prepare an animal for breeding and pregnancy
progestins hormone that prepares the uterus for implantation and maintains pregnancy
What 2 hormones influence the ovarian cycle? follicle stimulating hormone and leutinizing hormone
uniparous species that typically give birth to 1 offspring at a time (humans, horses and, cattle)
multiparous species that typically give birth to liters of offspring (dogs, cats, and sows)
oviducts or fallopian tubes small, convoluted tubes that extend from the tip of the uterine horns
infundibulum funnel-like fingers that catch the ova
uterus womb where the fertilized ovum implants and lives until birth
placenta life support sytem from mother to embryo
cervix musclar valve the closes off uterus from the outside world
When is the only times that the uterus opens? birth and estrus
vagina tube that recieves penis and breeding and acts as the birth canal
What is the only external female reporoductive organ? vulva
vestibule entrance to the vagina
clitoris female equal to the penis
labia external boundary of the vagina
What is the definitions of a full estrous cycle? the begining of one heat cycle to another
polyestrus animals the cycle continuosly throughout the year
What animals are polyestrous? cattle and swine
seasonally estrous animals the cycle at certain times through the year
What animals are seasonally estrous? horse, sheep, and cats
diestrous animals that have 2 cycles per year (usually spring and fall)
What animals are diestrous? dogs
monoestrus animals that only have 1 heat cycle a year
What anaimals are monoestrus mink and fox
What are the 5 stages of the heat cycle in order? 1. Proestrus 2. Estrus 3. Metestrus 4. Diestrus 5. Anestrus
This is the actual heat period and when the female is receptive to sexual activity? estrus
This is a period of temporary inactivity between breeding cycles? anestrus
This is a period of follice development in the ovary? proestrus
What cells have haploid chromosomes numbers? spermaozoa and ova
What letter spem cell needs to fertilize the ovum for the offspring to come out a male? Y
Why is the mid-piece of the sperm refered to as the power plant? it contains the mitochondria
In cold conditions, this muscle contracts to pull the testes closer to the body. cremaster
What is the purpose of the gubernaculum? it is the site of attatchment for the testes in the fetus's abdomen
When are the sperm transported from the vas defrens into the urethra? during ejaculation
True or False: Spermatozoa make up the majority of semen. False
What animals have an os penis? dog, walrus, and racoon
The glans of this animal is covered with short spines. cat
What is the significance of the bulb of the glans n the dog? when it is enlarged, it is impossible for the male to withdraw from the female
Which animals have a sigmoid flexure? boar, ram, and bull
What hormone must surge before ovulation will occur? lutenizing hormone
Where does fertilization USUALLY take place fallopian tubes
What is the embryologic euivilant of the penis in the female? clitoris
body of the uterus the main part of the uterus
broad ligament paired sheets of connective tissue that suspend the uterus from the dorsal part of the abdominal cavity and attatch to the abdominal wall
epididymis ribbon like structure along the surface of the testis where the sperm is stored
vas defrens muscular tube that carries sperm and fluids to the urethra at ejaculation
Are the testes kept warmer or cooler than body temperature? cooler
Created by: Andi Ulrey Andi Ulrey