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Exam Five

Microbiology Lecture

Drug? chemical that has a physiological effect.
Chemotherapeutic Drug? Prophylaxis? Antimicrobial drug? 1.tx, relive, prophylaxis a disease. 2.prevention. 3.drug to tx an infection.
The 3 categories of Antimicrobial drugs?(3) 1.antibiotics:produced naturally to inhibit/destroy microbe growth. 2.Semisynthetics: chemically modified antibiotics. 3.Synthetics: wholly synthesized in the lab.
Spectrum of Action? How is it categorized? 1.range of different microbes against which one antimicrobial drug can act on. 2. in either broad or narrow spectrum.
Broad Spectrum? Use? Can suppress? Types(2) tx a wide range; used when microbe is unidentified; this can suppress microbiota. types is tetracycline and erythromycin.
Narrow Spectrum? Use? Types(4) tx single or small number of pathogens; used when microbe identification is known; types is Bacitracin, Polymyxin, Penicillin G and Isoniazid.
Microbiota? Microbial Antagonism? 1.microbes that normally inhabit surface of the body that cause no harm. 2.Competition between microbiota and pathogens for nutrients and space. This helps the defense by limiting the ability of pathogens to colonize.
Superinfection? secondary infection that results by the use of drugs that disrupt microbiota; board spectrum.
What are the mechanisms of drug action?(6) 1.inhibit cell wall. 2.disrupt cell membrane. 3.inhibit protein synthesis. 4.inhibit nucleic acid and function. 5.inhibit metabolic pathway 6.block pathogen.
Drug Resistance? microbe is no longer affected by an antimicrobial that once was.
How is drug resistance acquired? Part A. it is acquired in two ways and that is chromosomal mutation or transfer of extra chromosomal DNA that comes from an already resistant species that affect a sensitive specie.
How is drug resistance acquired? Part B. It starts when a population of microbes has a mix of resistant and sensitive microbes. When the pt takes an antibiotic the drug kills all of the sensitive leaving only the resistant microbes left. this creates strong resistance.
What are the mechanisms of resistance?(5) 1.enzymes deactivate the drug. 2.decrease in cell wall permeability. 3.change in drug receptor sites. 4.change in metabolic pathway. 5.pump out of drugs before they become effective.
Multiple resistance? Cross resistance? 1.one pathogen is resistant to most antibacterial drugs. 2.resistance to one antimicrobial that allows resistance to another/similar antimicrobial.
Ways to retard resistance?(5) 1.physicians prescribing the correct drug. 2.pt taking the correct does and finishing the RX. 3.using combined therapy. 4.developing new variations of existing drugs. 5.cut off the addition of antimicrobial in animal feed.
Symbiosis? Live together; Types 1.Mutualism: WIN/WIN 2.Commersalism: WIN/no change. 3.Parasitism: WIN/HARM
Main Types of Microbiota? 1.Resident 2. Transient
Resident Microbiota? feed on dead cells/cellular waste, has a acommensal relationship, and changes with age, diet, health etc.
Transient Microbiota? Removed by?(3) Remain in/on the body for a short time, caught through contact, influenced by hygiene. Removed by: 1.resident competition. 2.Body defense elminates it. 3.Chemical/physical dislodge.
Axenic Environments? Sites? (4) Fluid?(3) 1.sites free of any pathogens (sterile). 2.heart, lungs, brain, spinal cord. 3.blood, cerebrospinal fluid, amnotic fluid
Nocoscomial Infection? infection acquired by a patient or healthcare worker. also known as Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI)
(HAI) Factors? Factors: numerous pathogens, weakened immune system and transmission of pathogens
How is pathogens transmitted? How is it prevented 1.droplets of mucus that exit the body during a cough or sneeze. 2.Washing hands.
Types of (HAI)?(3) 1.Exogenous: Hospitals bed rails, trashcans etc. 2.Endogenous: normal microbiota that become pathogenic. 3.Iatrogenic: invasive diagnostic procedures/surgery such as catheters.
What are the 5 common Nosocomial Pathogens Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus species.
Categories of Immune Defense? 1.Nonspecific Defense: against wide range of pathogens, includes the interior and exterior defenses. 2.Specific Defense; against specific pathogens, have a memory to kill a repeated pathogen rapidly.
Types of Immune Defense? 1.Innate Immunity: present at birth, nonspecific defense. 2.Adaptive Immunity:acquired immunity, more effective, specific defense, responds against unique species and strains.
The 3 lines of defense? First line of defense: nonspecific, external defense(innate). Second line of defense: nonspecific, internal defense(innate). Third line of defense: specific defense(adaptive).
Epidermis? Dermis? 1.outer layer of skin. 2.deer layer of skin that contains follicles, glands, and nerve endings.
Collagen? in dermis, make the skin strong
Dendritic Cells? branched phagocytic cells in epidermis
Antimicrobial peptides(Defensin) short chains of about 40 AA that act against microbes; its secreted by sweat glands.
Plasma? liquid portion of the blood that has proteins that are involved in the body defense of inflammation.
Granulocyte types? Basophils, Eosinophiles and Neutrophils.
Agranulocytes types? Lymphocytes and Monocytes.
Diapedesis/emigraion? process that neutophils and eosinophils exit the blood stream and enter tissue to attack invading microbes.
Macrophages? a monoctyte that leaves the blood and become phagocytic.
Natural Killer Lymphocytes? identify and spar normal body cells.
Differential WBC count? Signs? Portions of leukocytes are determined. Signs: 1.increase in percent of Esoin. = allergies/helminth infection. 2.increase in Leuko number plus increase in Neutro percent=bacterial infection 3.increase in Lymph=viral infection.
Complement? a family of nonspecific defensive serum that combine with the immune system to protect against microbes. it can increase phagocytosis, lyse pathogens, amplify inflammation and trigger fever.
Complement is activated in 3 ways? 1.Classical pathway:antibodies. 2.Alternative pathway:pathogens. 3.Lectin pathway:polysaccharides bind.
Interferons? nonspecific defense to protect cells from resist viruses.
Inflammation? Acute inflammation? Chronic Inflammation 1.response to tissue damage. 2.rapid, beneficial, clean injured tissue. 3.long-lasting, damage or death to tissue, results in disease.
Inflammation S/S? (4) 1.Calor:heat. 2.Edema:swelling. 3.Rubor: red color. 4.Dolor:pain
Fever? Benefits? body temp above 37C, it occurs when Pyrogens trigger hypothalamus. benefits is enhance interferon, phagocyte, specific immunity, tissue repair and inhibit microbial growth
Adaptive Immunity? body's ability to recognize and defend agaisnt disting invaders and their products
antigens? molecules on pathogens that provoke a specific immune response
Specificity? Inducibility? 1.adaptive immunity that act against specific attackers. 2.adaptive immunity that cells activate only in response to specific pathogens.
Clonality? Unresponsiveness to self? Memory? 1.adaptive immunity that form nearly identical cells clones. 2.adaptive immunity that does not act against normal body cells. 3.adaptive immunity that remembers pathogens or toxins
Lymphocytes? Types? 1.Type of WBC that contributes to specific immunity. 2.B-lymphocytes: defend against extracellular pathogens/ occur in body fluids. and T-Lymphocytes:defend against intracellular pathogens and do not involve antibodies.
Types of T-Lymphocytes? 1.Cytotoxic:attack pathogens/ tumor. 2.Helper: regulate the activity of B cells. 3.Regulatory: repress adaptive immune response to prevent an autoimmune disease.
Antigens? Epitopes? 1.portion of cells/viruses that the body recognize as foreign body. 2.3-d shape of regions.
Types of Antigens? 1.Exogenous;multiply outside of the cells. 2.Endogenous:multiply inside of the cells of the body. 3.Autoantigens:surface of normal body cells that prevent body from mounting an immune response against itself.
Antibodies? ant-antigen protein thats secreted by plasma cells.
Created by: aneshia