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Mid-Term Study Guide

Integrated Science I CP Mid-Term Study Guide

Chemical Property any of a material's properties that becomes evident during a chemical reaction; any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity. Examples: heat of combustion, reactivity w/ water, PH, and electromotive force
Physical Property Properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter Examples of physical properties are: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction or repulsion to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density
Atom The atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element. An atom has an electron cloud consisting of negatively charged electrons surrounding a dense nucleus.
Atomic mass Number of Protons + Neutrons (this is an average of all of the isotopes)
Atomic number The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. The atomic number determines which element an atom is. For example, any atom that contains exactly 47 protons in its nucleus is an atom of silver.
electron Subatomic particle with a negative charge
energy level
Allotrope two or more forms of the same element but formed under different conditions example: Carbon has 8 different allotropes a)diamond b)graphite d)buckminsterfullerene
Isotope Same number of protons different number of neutrons. Carbon 14 , 13 - these are used to study paleo- climates. there are 15 different isotopes of carbon Uranium 238, 235 - radioactively decay into radioisotopes
mass number the number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus.
neutron particles on an atom that have a neutral charge
nucleus The nucleus of an atom is the very dense region, consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons), at the center of an atom.
proton Positively charged particle, found in the nucleus
What particles make up an atom and what are there charges? Electron - surrounding the nucleus in orbitals/shells, negative charge - Proton - make up the nucleus, positive charge - Neutron - make up the nucleus, neutral charge
What particles make up the nucleus of an atom? - Protons - Neutrons
Where is an electron found in an atom? surrounding the nucleus in orbitals/shells
How many smaller particles make up protons and neutrons? How many different types of these are there and what are they called? - a particle that clumps together to form a neutron or a proton. there are 6 different types of quarks. (up,down, charm, strange, top and bottom)
Where or how were the above particles discovered?
If the atomic number of element is 14, what can you say about the number of protons and electrons for this element's atom?
How do you calculate an atom's atomic mass? The mass of a single atom is so small that a unit of measurement has been created to describe it--the atomic mass unit (amu). An atomic mass unit, also called a universal mass unit, is based on the weight of one carbon atom. One amu is equal to 1/12 the m
How do you calculate an atom's number of neutrons? Take the atomic mass, round it. Than subtract the atomic number and you have the neutrons
How do you calculate an atom's number of electrons? The number of electrons in an atom is always equal to the number of protons in that same atom. Since the atomic mass of a periodic element equals the weight of the atoms protons AND its neutrons, number of neutrons = atomic mass - atomic number
Up to how many electrons can be held in the 1st energy level of an atom? The 2nd? The 3rd? Level 1 = 2 electrons Level 2 = 8 electrons Level 3 = 18 electrons
Draw the atom of Oxygen. Include the atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and the number of electrons in each appropriate level.
Draw the atom of Zinc. Include the atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and the number of electrons in each appropriate level.
Draw the atom of Sodium. Include the atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and the number of electrons in each appropriate level.
A _____ gives an atom its identity, and a ______ gives an atom its personality. Explain this statement. protons give identity electrons give personality
Does the mass of a nail change after it has become rusty? Why or why not?
How does the scale of an atom compare to everyday objects?
What is the equation to calculate density? What units were each of the variables measured in the lab you completed? density = mass/volume
Decide whether the following atoms are isotopes or different elements. a. 8 protons with the atomic mass 16 b. 8 protons with atomic mass 18
Decide whether the following atoms are isotopes or different elements.
Decide whether the following atoms are isotopes or different elements. a. 2 protons with atomic mass 4 b. 4 protons with the atomic mass 9
Convert the following using this information. 1 kilometer = 1,000 meters 5,400 kilometers to meters 5,400,000 meters
Convert the following using this information. 1 picometer = 1 x 10 meters 36 picometers to meters
Convert the following using this information. 1,000 mililiters = 1 liter
Atmosphere the layer of gases that surround earth
Biosphere the living portion of the earth
Geosphere the portion of earth that is made of “rock”
Anthrosphere the man-made portion of earth, includes buildings and cars
Hydrosphere the water portion of earth, includes oceans, lakes, rivers…
Ozone Layer is in the upper stratosphere, a layer of the atmosphere that acts to block out harmful uv radiation.
Anthropogenic (a man-made source) sources of smog and air particles: Coal burning plants Vehicle combustion Fertilizer run-off (Nitrogen) Students think of more
Troposphere the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere. Where anthropogenic ozone is a concern
Stratosphere second layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above troposphere, and below mesosphere. Commercial airliners typically cruise at an altitude near 10 km, in lower reaches of stratosphere. They do this to stay above turbulence from convection in the troposphere.
Mesophere the third highest layer, occupying the region 50 km to 80 km above the surface of the Earth; The mesosphere is also the layer in which a lot of meteors burn up while entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the Earth they are seen as shooting stars.
Water Vapor the gas phase of water. Water vapor is one state of the water cycle within the hydrosphere.
Density measure of how much mass is contained in a given unit volume (density = mass/volume) look at whether things float or sink in a liquid (water, for example)to determine density. If an object is less dense than the liquid it is placed in, it will float.
Dalton's Atomic Theory (early 1800s) · All elements are composed of atoms. Atoms can not be divided or destroyed. · Atoms of the same element are exactly alike. · Atoms of different elements are different. · Atoms of two or more elements join together to form compounds.
Greenhouse Effect
How was the earth's atmosphere formed? Where did the high concentration of oxygen come from? (used diagrams shown on the smartboard - 3 steps) Origin is believed to be from meteor showers bringing gases from the universe and volcanic outgasing Increased oxygen from bacteria that photosynthesize
What gases make up the earth's atmosphere? Give the percentages of each. Two gases make up the bulk of the earth's atmosphere: nitrogen ( ), which comprises 78% of the atmosphere, and oxygen ( ), which accounts for 21%. Various trace gases make up the remainder.
Give one use of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere. (sink)
Give one way that oxygen is produced in the earth's atmosphere. (source)
Give one use of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. (sink)
Give one way that carbon dioxide is produced in the earth's atmosphere. (source)
Why is nitrogen fixing bacteria so important to animals? If there were no nitrogen-fixing bacteria, there would be no plants because the nitrogen in the soil would be used up too quickly. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria helps to replace the nitrogen in the soil so that green plants can survive and flourish.
How is Ozone made in the stratosphere? Why is this layer so important to life on earth? Natural in the Stratoshpere O + O2 = O3 Acts as a shield to keep out harmful UV radiation
Why is the sky blue?
What has created the hole in the ozone layer? (know the chemical equations) The Hole in the Ozone has been created by Cl- bonding with O3 and breaking it apart into ClO + O2
How is tropospheric ozone created, and why is it so harmful to life on earth?(How is this different from stratospheric?) Anthropogenic in Troposphere Acts as blanket, traps in heat increasing temperatures on earth. Chemical reactions in troposphere from greenhouse gases release a free oxygen molecule to react w/ oxygen gas to create ozone NO2 = NO + O O + O2 = O3
Which type of earth's surface heats up fastest, ocean or land? Why?
Which city is colder in the winter Portland, Maine or Pierre, South Dakota? Why?
What is the water cycle? The Earth's water is always in movement, and the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.
Explain evaporation. the sun heats up water in rivers,lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam, which leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air. Transpiration gives evaporation a bit of a hand in getting the water vapor back up into the air.
Explain condensation. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds.
Explain precipitation. water found in air as water vapour or as water droplets that fall from the sky, forms of water particles, whether liquid or solid, that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground. forms of precipitation: rain, drizzle, snow, snow grains, snow pellets,
What is a sea breeze, when, why and how does it form? wind develops over land near coasts,increasing temperature differences between land/water which creates pressure over land due to warmth and forces higher pressure, cooler air from sea to move inland. temperature gets cooler closer to large body of water.
What is the product when CO2 is dissolved in water? Why is this a concern for the world's oceans? What is the chemical equation for this process? carbonation
Created by: ldorso