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Exam Three

Microbiology Lecture

Virus? acellular infectious agent having one or several pieces of nucleic acid.
Why are viruses obligate parasites?(3) they lack protein, lack ATP generating system and lack enzymes for metabolic reactions.
Virion? Extracellular? Intracellular? Virion:Extracellular virus that is inactive. Extracellular: outside host, inactive. Intracellular: inside host, active
Size of Viruses? Range from 10nm-400nm. require an electron microscope to be seen. the smallest is compared to a ribosomes and the largest size is compared to the smallest bacteria.
Capsid? protein coat
Components of Viruses? 1.Nucleic Core(holds DNA/RNA not both) 2.Protein Covering(protects the genetic information i.e capsid)
Why virus cannot make its capsid without the host cell? capsid is made out of protein and viruses rely on their host for ribosomes.
Types of DNA/RNA? (4) ssDNA: single strand DNA. dsDNA: double strand DNA. ssRNA: single strand RNA. dsRNA: double strand RNA.
Viral Genome? the sum of all genetic material in a virus. a viral genome is smaller than cell genomes. example: E.coli has 4000 genes
Capsomeres? repeating proteins subunits
Nucleocapsid? viral nucleic acid and its capsid together.
Envelope? Envelope Virus? Envelope: phospholid membrane that surrounds the nucleocapsid. the virus that has an envelope is referred to as an envelope virus. envelope is composed of host cell membrane(plasma, nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum) and viral proteins
Naked Virus? virus that consist of nucleocapsid only. no envelope. these viruses spread easily, dry out and retain infectivity, survive adverse conditions in the gut and is resistant to detergents and sewage treatment.
Types of Viral Shapes? (3) 1.Helical 2. Complex 3. Polyhedreal
Helical Shapes? Polyhedral Shape? Complex Shape? 1.spiral tube around the nucleic acid. 2.Spherical and Icosahedron(20 sides). 3.helical tail and polyhedral head combined, bacteriophages is an example or thous with atypical proteins coverings.
Bacteriophage? virus that infect bacteria
How are viral envelopes acquired? viral envelops are acquired from the host cell during viral replication or release from the host cell. most viruses acquire and envelope during release.
Virial envelopes function? 1.connect envelope to capsid. 2.connect virus to host cell.
virial envelope Pros/Cons? PRO: easy to invade the immune system. CON: damaged in high heat, extreme PH and with disinfectants.
Why is an envelope virus more easily damaged in high heat, ph extremes and disinfectants than naked virus? naked virus has no envelope, it has protein capsid and phospholipids(envelope) are more easily damaged than proteins.
Spikes? surface projections. Function is to 1.attach to host cell and 2. fuse virus and host cell membranes.
Replication Stages?(5) 1.Attachment. 2.Entry: a)direct penetration, b) membrane fusion c)endocytosis. 3.Synthesis. 4.Assembly. 5.Release: a) exocytosis/cell lysis b)budding.
Host Range? is the spectum of host that a virus can infect.
Types of host range? 1.Restricted: Hep B only infects humans. 2.Intermediate:polio virus infects only mammals that are primates. 3.Broad: rabies virus infects all mammals.
Specificity? is determined by? specific cells and or tissues a virus can infect. determined by a virus can attach to a cell and a cell has enzymes that a virus needs
The effects on host cell? 1.Cytopathic Effects(CPE): visible effects on microscope. 2.Teratogenic Effects:induced birth defects in embryo/fetus. 3.Oncogenic Effects: normal cells transformed to cancer cells.
Virus Cultivation? Types of Methods? How to culture viruses. Methods 1.In Vivo:place viruses in whole organisms. 2.In Vitro: place viruses in cell cultures.
Who created the Viral Taxonomy? ICTV(International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) in 1966
Virus Taxonomy is classified by? 1.type of nucleic acid(ssDNA/dsDNA/ssRNA/dsRNA). 2.Presence of an envelope. 3.shape(helical, polyhedral and complex) 4.size(10nm-400nm)
Taxa Endings? 1.Order: virales 2.Family: viridae 3.Genus: virus
HIV characteristics? nucleic acid has 2 identical ssRNA, icosahedral shape, capsid, envelope has glycoprotein spikes, size is 100nm diameter and enzymes consist of Integrase, Protease, Ribonuclease, and Reverse Transcriptase.
HIV likes Host cells that are? cells with CD4 receptors: Th cells, Macrophages, dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.
Virioids? extremely small, circular(sometimes linear) piece of ssRNA that is infectious and pathogenic in plants. they lack capsid
What are some plants that viriods infect? potatoes, cucumber, citrus, coconut palm, chrysanthemum and avocado. they don't infect animals but could cause human disease.
Prions? mutation in PrP, can cause fatal degenerative diseases of the CNS. an example is Spongiform encephalopathics which is the brain matter is lost replacing it with vacuoles.
Prions Diseases? are transmitted by ingestion, transplant, contaminated medical equipment, mucous membrane or skin abrasions
Prion Control? no treatment, cannot be inactivated and needs incineration or autoclave to destroy.
Types of Prions Diseases? 1.CWD: deer, elk and moose as natural host with no transmission to humans recorded. 2.BSE: mad cow disease, s/s are inability to stand, incoordination and aggressive behavior. 3.Scrapie: sheep and goats have scrubbed fleece. s/s are weakness, lip smack.
Neuronal diseases with Prions? Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
Poxviridae? caueses Monkeypox and Small pox.
Hepadnaviridae? causes Hepatitis B.
Picornaviridae? causes Hepatitis A, common cold virius and polio virus
Hepevirdiae? causes Hepatitis E.
Flavivirdiae? causes Hepatits C.
Created by: aneshia