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AS Blood transport

AS AQA blood pressure velocity and redistribution

What is blood pressure? The force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels
What is systolic pressure? The peak pressure in the arteries which occurs when the heart is contracting and emptying blood into the arterial system.
What is diastolic blood pressure? The lowest pressure in the arteries which occurs when the heart is relaxing and filling with blood
Which two factors determine blood pressure? ) Cardiac out put and resistance to flow ( blood viscosity, blood vessel length & blood vessel radius
What is blood velocity? The speed at which the blood flows through the circulatory system.
What happens to blood velocity as it travels through the circulatory system? It reduces the further away it gets due to the increased cross sectional area of the blood vessel. ( slowest in the capillaries)
What happens to blood pressure as it travels through the circulatory system? Reduces the further it is away from the heart. Due to increased cross sectional area, friction of blood against the vessel wall and the length of the blood vessel
Name the structures of an artery Thick walls (middle layer of smooth muscle) to with stand high blood pressure. Takes blood away from the heart
Name the structures of a vein Walls contain thin layer of muscle Return blood to heart Pocket valves Positioned between skeletal muscle Positioned inside thoracic cavity
Name the structures of capillaries Walls one cell thick narrow large in number
What are the two circulatory systems? Pulmonary blood from heart to lungs and back to heart / Systemic oxygenated blood carries away from heart to body tissues and back
What does vasoconstriction mean? Reducing flow of blood into capillaries by action of sympathetic nerves
What are pre-capillary sphincters? Rings of muscle at the entrance to a capillary bed, which can vasodilate or constrict the arteriole serving that capillary bed
Why does more blood go to the heart, skin, and working muscles during exercise? Heart is a muscles and requires nutrients, working muscles require nutrients, skin requires energy to cool body and also to radiate heat away
Why tells the body that blood needs to be redistributed? During exercise CO2 is produced this increases the acidity of the blood, picked up by chemorecpetors, message sent to brain, sympathetic nerves vasodiate/vasoconstrict pre capillary sphincters
What does vasodilatation mean? Increasing flow of blood into capillaries
Why does the body redistribute blood? To ensure that oxygen and nutrients are directed to the tissues needed it and to control temperature.
Why does blood flow remain constant to the brain? The brain is constnstly working and requires nutrients and oxygen
Created by: Tina Dean