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A2 Anxiety

key terms for anxiety and goal setting

Anxiety The negative form of stress which leads to increase arousal levels and a potential decrease in performance level.
Somatic anxiety Physiological responses to a situation where a performer feels that they may be unable to cope; symptoms include increased heart rate, sweaty palms, muscle tension and nausea
State anxiety Anxiety felt in a particular situation
Cognitive anxiety Thoughts, nervousness, apprehension or worry that a performer has about their lack of ability to complete a task successfully
Trait anxiety An enduring personality trait giving a tendency to view all situations as threatening
Self-report questionnaires These involve performers answering a series of questions concerning their emotions in specific situations.
Observation A performance is assessed in the actual performance situation. • Individual behaviour: • Aspects of performance The information is analysed and repeated behaviour patterns are noted.
Biofeedback Biofeedback involves monitoring the physiological responses of the performer Data is collected on changes in heart rate, muscle response, respiration rate, sweat production and levels of hormone secretion.
Stress management methods Cognitive Somatic
Cognitive methods Imagery Thought stopping Self-talk Attentional control
Somatic techniques Bio feedback Breathing control Progressive muscle relaxation Relaxation
Value of Goal setting 1. Identifies future targets 2. In order to maintain or improve performance; 3. Aids motivation; 4. Evaluates progress
Outcome Goal judges the performance of and individual; against others and the end result
Principles of goal setting • Specific • Measurable • Accepted • Realistic • Time based • Exciting • Recorded
Performance goal Judges against the performers own standards i.e. how they perform (stroke action) /use of own PB
How Goal setting can improve performance 1. Task persistence 2. Focuses on a target to aim for 3. Motivates performer 4. Reduces stress/anxiety 5. Increases self-efficacy
Observation Advantages Advantages • completed in the performance situation • specific situations which cause stress can be identified • difficult for performer to manipulate evidence over an extended period of time
Observaion disadvantages Disadvantages • subjective • several observers should be watching to ensure all actions are noted • the performer should be well-known to the observers, allowing them to identify any unusual and uncharacteristic behaviour patterns
Biofeedback Advantages Advantages • objective evidence collected
Biofeedback disadvantages Disadvantages • Difficult to record information during an actual performance (athlete has to be ‘wired-up) natural reaction to being evaluated being replication of the competitive environment is difficult in the laboratory situation.
Self-report questionnaires Advantages Advantages • ease of administration • large numbers can be assessed quickly • cheap to administer.
Self-report questionnaires disadvantages Disadvantages: • misinterpretation of the questions • the respondents may not answer honestly • inappropriate questions may be used (bias) • the actual time of completion • the available responses
Process goal goal focuses on what to do in order to achieve outcome or performance goals
Created by: Tina Dean