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Embalming Q3

Final Study Guide

blood composition after death 85% capillaries 10% veins 5% arteries 45% solid 55% liquid
reasons for blood drainage 1. slow post-embalming decomposition 2. make room for arterial solution 3. permit disinfection 4. remove blood discolorations 5. reduce secondary dilution 6. remove a tissue that rapidly decomposes 7. remove bacteria present in the blood
most common/effective drainage method alternate drainage
method of injection-drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while drainage is open alternate drainage
method of drainage in which the drainage is stopped at intervals while the injection continues intermittent drainage
method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular injection concurrent drainage
which drainage methods are considered "restricted"? alternate & intermittent
possible dangers of heart tap might clog trocar & might damage arterial system
heart tap: aim trocar at the ____ ear lobe right
dark red, soft & fragile rapidly-forming clot that forms before blood separates; most easily removed clot Cruror/Red Currant Jelly clot
yellowish-white clot that forms when red & white blood cells separate; takes longer to form Chicken Fat clot
clot found in the right atrium of the heart; fibrin separates out from blood and forms a sticky & hard clot; problematic during aspiration White Fibrin clot
methods for assisting drainage - anticoagulant - massaging - pre-injection - hot/cold compresses -drain tube
the direct treatment other than by arterial injection of the contents of the body cavities & the lumina of the hollow viscera cavity treatment
purposes of cavity treatment 1. weight of viscera prevents embalming of viscera via arterial injection 2. must remove decomposing material inside 3. must treat lumina of hollow viscera
9 Regional Plan: upper right right hypochondriac
9 Regional Plan: upper left left hypochondriac
9 Regional Plan: upper middle center epigastric
9 Regional Plan: middle right right lateral/lumbar
9 Regional Plan: middle left left lateral/lumbar
9 Regional Plan: middle middle center umbilical
9 Regional Plan: lower right right inguinal/iliac
9 Regional Plan: lower left left inguinal/iliac
9 Regional Plan: lower middle center hypogastric/pubic
main trocar guides stomach, cecum, urinary bladder, heart
trocar guide: stomach toward intersection of 5th intercostal space & left midaxillary line
trocar guide: cecum toward 1/4th of the distance from right anterior superior iliac spine to the public symphysis
trocar guide: urinary bladder toward the intersection of the midline & pubic bone
trocar guide: heart toward the right ear lobe up until the diaphragm, lower to get under rib
cases requiring reaspiration 1. ascites 2. blood infection 3. Crones disease 4. pulmonary infections 5. infectious disease of abdominal 6. obesity 7. shin-ins
the postmortem evacuation of any substance from any external opening of the body (including incisions) purge
causes of purge - pressure - rupture - gas buildup - diseases in GI tract - encephalitisis - cerebra hemorrhage - post-operative cases
brown colored purge with sour odor, coffee ground consistency, mostly liquid stomach purge
white frothy odorless purge lung purge
cream-colored sticky purge brain purge
conditions predisposing to purge 1. decomp 2. delay between death & embalming 3. drowning/asphyxia 4. ab, thoracic or cranial surgery 5. tissue gas 6. hydrothorax/ascites 7. peritonitis or blood infections 8. varices, GI tract ulcers, internal hemorrhages 9. warm environment
which arteries of the head must be clamped off for an autopsy? internal carotids
which arteries should be ligated for an autopsy case? 1. external iliacs 2. axillaries or subclavians 3. common carotids
attaching the calvarium: notches present 1 notch on frontal bone, other notches on temporal bones
attaching the calvarium: notches not present 1. suture through temporalis muscles 2. calvarium clamps 3. drill holes in calvarium & temporal bones 4. superglue 5. plaster of paris 6. needle injector wires
autopsy: arteries to inject lower extremities ideal: common iliac backup: external iliac
autopsy: arteries to inject upper extremities ideal: subclavians backup: axillaries
other arteries to clamp off (autopsy case) 1. vertebral 2. internal thoracic 3. internal thyroid
desquamation skin-slip
separation of the upper layer of skin (epidermis) from the deeper dermal layer skin-slip
cause of skin-slip decomposition of rete mucosum
sloughing off of the epidermis, wherein there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis skin-slip (desquamation)
postmortem accumulation of gas in tissues or cavities brought about by an anaerobic gas-forming bacillus, Clostridium perfringens tissue gas
the formation of cavities in an organ or tissue cavitation
"rice krispies" feel crepitation
cavitation is frequently seen in some _________ cases tuberculosis
cases predisposing to stomach purge 1. GI tract diseases 2. stomach cancer 3. colitis 4. peritonitis 5. ulcerations 6. intestinal obstructions
cases predisposing to lung purge 1. tuberculosis 2. pneumonia 3. lung cancer
cases predisposing to brain purge 1. encephalitis 2. meningitis 3. cerebral hemorrhage
bacteria that causes tissue gas Clostridium perfringens (Clostridium welchii)
cases that predispose to tissue gas 1. antemortem infection 2. compromised immune system 3. intestinal perforation, ulceration or hemorrhage 4. intestinal carcinoma 5. appendicitis/peritonitis 6. septicemia 7. gun shot/stab wounds 8. intro of bacteria from outside source (trauma)
conditions that predispose to skin-slip 1. edema 2. heat blisters 3. frost bite 4. burns
conditions that predispose to dehydration 1. hemorrhage 2. febrile diseases 3. high or chronic fever 4. chronic or exhausting diseases that interfere with hydration 5. vomiting/diarrhea 6. burns 7. refrigeration
embalming treatment: dehydrated case - slow rate - large volume - mild fluid - restricted drainage - pulse - humectant - anticoagulant (co-injection) - massage cream
dropsy edema
abnormal accumulation of a plasma-like fluid (mostly water) in the cells, intercellular tissue spaces, and/or cavities of the body edema
water invades the cells themselves, causing hardening of the cell & reduction of intercellular space solid edema
condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation pitting edema
abdominal edema ascites
hydroperitneum ascites
edema in the chest; between lungs & lung covering hydrothorax
pleurisy hydrothorax
increase of pericardial fluid hydropericardium
water/fluid in the cranial cavity hydrocephalus
water/fluid in the scrotum hydrocele
general (widespread) edema anasarca
causes of edema 1. congestive heart failure 2. renal failure/insufficiency 3. arteriosclerosis 4. hyperthemia (1st & 2nd degree burns) 5. alcoholism/cirrhosis of liver 6. carbon monoxide poisoning 7. chemotherapy 8. lymphatic damage/obstruction 9. lung diseases
embalming problems caused by edema 1. distention 2. increased secondary dilution 3. increased preservative demand 4. skin-slip 5. early & extensive decomposition 6. skin too soft 7. arterial constriction
embalming treatment: generalized edema - no preinjection - strong unmodified hydroscopic fluid - 3-5% minimum - edema fluid coinjection - astringent - low pressure - low rate - massage/squeeze & release - hypodermic injection
embalming treatment: dependent edema - sectional embalming - inject affected part separately - body gets normal arterial - hypodermic injection (95% phenol/cavity/cauterant)
when moisture is retained by the cell, or abnormal amounts of moisture are allowed to pass into the cell solid edema
sequence of postmortem color change 1. postmortem hypostasis (begins at death) 2. livor mortis (begins 20 mins after death) 3. postmortem stain (6 hrs after death) 4. formaldehyde grey (after embalming)
discoloration: Addison's disease bronze
discoloration: leukemia petecheae
discoloration: jaundice yellow (bilirubin) green (biliverdin)
discoloration: sulpha drugs (penicillin) bruise-like
discoloration: atabrine yellow (bilirubin)
discoloration: methylene blue blue
separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes decomposition
signs of decomposition 1. color changes 2. odor 3. purge 4. gases 5. desquamation
end products of lipid decomposition (lipolysis) glycerol & fatty acids
end products of carbohydrate decomposition (fermentation) organic acids, then carbon dioxide & water
end products of protein decomposition (putrefaction) amino acids
hardening/calcification of arteries arteriosclerosis
softening of arteries atheroma/atherosclerosis
hardening of veins phlebosclerosis
clot attached to the lumen thrombus
clot that moves through the lumen embolus
weakening in the wall of an artery that causes a bubble & eventually breaks aneurysm
embalming treatment: decomposition case - 3-5% at least - firming fluid - avoid humectant/cosmetic fluid - 6 point injection - low pressure - low rate - hypodermic injection - possibly waterless
any fetus that dies prior to delivery stillborn
any infant weighing less than 5 pounds at birth or born prior to the 37th week of gestation premature (preterm)
from birth to 18 months old infant
18 - 48 months old (1 1/2 - 4 years) toddler
4 years old - puberty child
arteries for infant embalming (non-autopsy) 1. common carotid 2. femoral/external iliac 3. abdominal aorta 4. ascending aorta
arteries for infant embalming (autopsy) 1. common carotid 2. iliac 3. subclavian 4. axillary
methods for embalming stillborns 1. osmosis method 2. paraformaldehyde in lidded box
peach fuzz hair lanugo
arteries/structures for premature infant embalming 1. carotid 2. abdominal aorta 3. ascending aorta 4. arch of aorta 5. arterial umbilical vessel (can be problematic)
arteries for embalming 4 - 12 year olds (unautopsied) 1. common carotid 2. femoral
arteries for embalming 4 - 12 year olds (autopsy) 1. common carotid 2. external iliac 3. internal iliac 4. subclavian
organs of infants requiring special attention during aspiration liver & brain
tuberculosis: modes of transmission 1. ingestion 2. inhalation 3. casual contact 4. broken skin
tuberculosis: symptoms 1. emaciation 2. fever 3. cavitation/tubercles 4. dehydration
candidates for tuberculosis the fatigued and those with low resistance or compromised resistance
tuberculosis: embalming problems 1. dehydration 2. purge 3. clotting
tuberculosis: cause mycobacteria
painful cutaneous skin lesions with nodular appearance, usually on the face & neck; caused by tuberculosis lupus vulgaris
embalming treatment: purge - begin at suspected source as soon as it occurs - allow purge to continue - protect skin from acidic burns - treat after arterial injection - cavity treatment - cranial aspiration - penetrate cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
embalming treatment: tissue gas - high index - special fluid - 55% cavity fluid - hypodermic injection of cavity fluid into gas-filled area & surrounding area & underneath - reinjection if tissue gas appears after embalming
preferred artery for arteriosclerosis case femoral artery in sitiu
incision size for infants 1/2"
Created by: leahmurphy