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A&P 1

exam 1

integument the skin covering the body, also known as the cutaneous membrane. scientific study and treatment is termed dermatology - Body's largest organ - Protects internal bodystructures - Account for 7~8% of body weight - Surface area ranges between 1.5-2.0m2
Integument composed all tissue type - Surface - epithelium - Underlying: connective tissue, provides strength and resilience - Smooth muscle tissue associated/w hair follicles - Nervous tissue: touch, pressure, temperature and pain
Two Layers Epidermis - Top layer Dermis - Deeper Layer
Epidermis Epi = above, Derma = Skin Consists of Keratinized, startified squamous epithelium, Specific layers, or strata
Layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial - Stratum Basale - Stratum Spinosum - Stratum Granulosum - Stratum Lucidum - Stratum Corneum
Stratum basale Three cell types - Keratinocytes - Melanocytes - Tactile cells
Keratinocytes - Most abundant cells in epidermis - all layers - divide to regenerate neww cell, replace old cells shed at the surface - synthesis of keratin(the protein that strengthens the epidermis)
Melanocytes - Scattered among the keratinocytes of the stratum basale - Spider-shaped epithlial cells - produce the pigment(melanin) in response to UV
Melanosomes Melanocytes manufacture melanin from the amino acid tyrosin, and apckage it in membrane bound granules
Melanosomes Transferred from melanocytes into Keratinocyes - Accumulate on the superficial(Sunny side) of the Keratinocyte nucleus - Shield nuclear DNA from UVradiation - Responsible for the darker tones of skins
Tactile cell - Know as Merkel cells - Few in number - Sensitive to touch - When compressed, release chemicals: stimuulate sensor nerve ending
Stratum Spinosum - Several layers of polygonal keratinocytes - Know as spiny layer
Spinosum Daughter cells from stratum basale are pushed into this layer Non-dividing keratinocytes attached by intercellular Junction called desmosomes
Epidermal Dendritic cells(Langerhans cells) - often present in stratum spinosum and granulosum - Immune cells that help initiate immune response to fight infection in the epidermis - Responsive to pathogens and epidermal cancer cells
Stratum Granulosum - Three to five layers of Keratinocytes - Known as granular layer - Keratinization begins within it: process where keratinocytes fill with keratin casue nucleus and organelles to disintegrate fully keratinized cells are dead but struturlly strong
stratum lucidum - Two to three layers of keratinocytes - Clear layer - Found only Thick skin within the palms and soles - Filled with a translucent protein Eleidin - Helps protect skin from UV light
Stratum Corneum - 20-30 layers of dead keratinized cells ( anucleate/without a nucleus), tightly packed, plasma membrane enclosing keratin protein - Known as the hornlike layer - Most superficial layer of epidermis - Secretions of exocrine gladns, helping prevent grow
Variations in the epidermis - its thickness, coloration, and skin markings - the epidermis exhibits variation: between different body regions within one individual and between individuals
Hemoglobin - Oxygen binding compound present in red blood cells - bright red color upon binding oxygen - Gives blood vessels in dermis a reddish tint - Seen most easily in fair skinned individuals and more visible if blood vessels dilate
Melanin -Pigment produced and stored in melanocytes - Occurs in blak, brown, tan, yellow-brown shades - Amount in skin varies according to heredity and light exposure - All ppl same # of melanocytes - darker skinned producing more and darker colored melanin
Carotene - Yellow-orange pigment - Acquired from yellow-orange vegetables - Accumulates inside subutaneous fat and keratinocytes of stratum corneum - Converted to Vitamin A within the body
Nevus - Common called a mole - Harmless ovdrgrowth of melanin forming cells - Rarely may become malignant, typically as a consequence of excessive UV light exposure - should be monitored for changes that my suggest malignancy
Freckles - Yellowish or brown spots - Represent localized areas of increased melanocyte activity - Degree of pigmentation based on sun exposure and heredity
Hemangioma - Skin discoloration due to blood vessels that proliferate to fom a benign tumor
Capillary hemangiomas - appear in skin a sbright red to deep purple nodules - usally present at birth and disappear in childhood - known as strawberry-coloredd birthmarks
Cavernous hemangiomas - involve larger dermal blood vessels - may last a lifetime - known as prot-wine stains
friction Ridge - Complex arches and whorls on fingers, aplms, soles, and toes - Formed from large folds and valleys of dermis and epidermis - each individual with a unique pattern of friction ridges - Allows for persnoal identification
Dermis -Deep to the epiderrmis - Composed of connectve tissue
Component of the Dermis - Collagen with elastic and reticular fibers - motile dentritic cells serving an immun function - blood vessels, sweat, sebaceous glands - Hair follicles, nail roots, sensory nerve ending, arrector pili muscles - Papillary layer&deeper reticular layer
Papillary layer of the dermis - Superficial region of the dermis - Directly adjacent to epidermis - Composed of areolar connertive tissue
Layer of the dermis - Dermal papille - contain capillaries and sensory nerve endings - projections of epidermis interdigitating with papillae termed epidermal ridges
Reticular layer of the dermis - Deeper, major protion of the dermis - Extends from papillary layer to subcutaneous layer - consists primarily of dense irregular CT - Contains large bundles of collage fibers
Stretch marks - Some collagen fibers are torn causing stretch marks
Dermal blood vessels - Supply nutrients to epidermis and dermis - Large vessels along reticular and subcutaneous border - Smaller vesses branching into dermis and dermal papillae - Play an important role in body temperature and blood pressure regulation
Subcutaneous Layer - Deep to dermis - Layer of areolar & adipose connective tissue - termed hopodermis - Not part of the integumentary system - Pads and protects the body
subcutaneous Layer - Acts as energy reservoir - Provides thermal insulation - Drgus often infected here - Woment, generally thicker : primarily in breasts, buttocks, hips, and thighs - Men, thinner : neck, upper arms, abdomen, lower back, buttocks
Nails, hair, exocrine glands - Know as epidermal derivatives or appendages, of the integuments - Both nails and hair are composed primarily of dead keratinized epithelial cells - exocrine glands are composed of living epithelial cells
Structure of nails - Scalelike modifications of the stratum corneum - form on the dorsal edges of fingers and toes - protect that distal tips of the digits - assist in grasping objects
Hair composition - Single hair, termed Pilus, with shape of a slender filament - Composed of keratinized cells growing from hair follicles
Three types of hair - Lanugo - Vellus -Terminal hair
Lanugo Fine, unpigmented, downy hair, appears in last trimester
Vellus Fine, unpigmented or lightly pigmented hair replaces lanugo at birth found in children and adult females
Terminal hair Coarser, pigmented longer on scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes men's beards duiring puberty replaces vellus hair in axillary and pubic regions
Hair bulb Swelling at the base in the dermis surronds hair papilla that is composed of connectivetissue containin tiny blood vessels and verves
Root portion of hair deep to skin surface
Shaft portion of hair that projects rom the skin & extends up to where the hairshaft loses its connetion with the follicle both root and shaft consists of dead epithelial cells
Hair components - Hair Matrix - Medulla - Cortex - Cuticle - Hair follicel - arrector pili muscle
Hair matrix structure at the base of the hair bulb epithelial cells are dividing here to elongate the hair
Medulla Inner layer of hair contains loosely arranged cells and air spaces contains flexible, soft keratin absent in fine hair
Cortex Middle layer of hair
Cuticle single layer of overlapping cells around cortex which coats the hair
Hair follicle oblique tube surrounding hair root extends into dermis and sometimes subcutaneous layer has an outer connective tissue root sheath originating in dermis has inner epithelial tissue root sheath orginating from epidermis
Arrector pili muscle thin ribbons of smooth muscle extend from hair follicle to the dermal papillae elevates hair with contraction, producing "goosebumps"
Functions of hair Protection - scalp form sunburn and injury within ears protecting from foreign matter eyebrowns keeping sweat out of eyes heat retention- prevents loos of heat from scalp to air senesory reception- visual identification chemical signal disperal
Hair color - Results from synthesis of melanin in the matrix adjacent to hair papillae - Relects genetic, enviornmental, and hormonal factors - Becomes lighter with age as pigment production decreases
Hair growth rate one-third mm per day in the scalp for 2 to 5 years enters dormant phase of 3 to 4 monts eventually pushed out and replaced by new hair Hair growth rate and the duratiom of the hair growth cycle varies
Hair loss Normal sclp loss o 10 to 100 hairs per day: may be result of drugs, dietary factors, radiation, high fever, stress Thinning of hair termed alopecia : usually as a result of aging
Diffuse hair loss hair shed from all parts of salp primarily in women
male pattern baldness loss of hair from only some regions of scalp combination of genetic and hormonal factors baldness allele dominant in male Recessive in females expressed only in the presence of high testosterone
Eocrine glands of the skin many types of exocrine glands Two most common: Sweat glands, Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands merocrine apocrine
sweat gland duct carrying secretions
sweat pore opening of the gland duct on epidermal surface termed
Merocrine sweat glands Most numerous and widely distributed sweat glands simple, coiled tubular glands discharge their secretions onto skin surface secrete sweat composed of 99% water&1% other chemicals
Major function of thermoregulation Regulation of body temperature by fluid evaporation loss of water and electorlytes some protection from environmental hazards both by : diluting harmful chemiclas, preventing the growht of microorganisms produce secretions by exocytosis
Apocrine sweat glands Coiled tubular glands Dischargesecretions into hair follicles Produces secretions by exoytosis
Apocrine sweat glands found axillae, around nipples,pubic and anal region contain proteins & lipids, produce odor acted on by bacteria Start producing secretions during puberty
Sebaceous gland Produce oily secretion called sebum acts as a lubricant for skin and hair has bactericidal properties discharged into a hair follicle holocrine glands Secretion stimulated by hormones, especially androgens Active during puberty
Ceruminous glands - Modified apocrine sweat glands - Located only in the external acoustic meatus - Secretions form waterproof earwax, cerumen help trap foreign material help lubricate acoustic meatus and eardrum
Mammary galnds - Modified aprocrine sweat glands of the breast - Found in both males and females - only function in pregnant and lactating females - Produce milk
Epidermis functions metabolic rgulation Secretion and absorption Immune function
Metabolic regulation Vitamin D : termed cholecalcifero Synthesized from a steroid precursor by keratinocytes ocuurs upon UV exposure Released into blood and transported to the liver condidered a hormone increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
Vitamin D synthesis important in regulating blood levels of calcium and phosphate Skin able to convert some compounds to slightly different forms UV rays stimulating melanocytes to produce melanin
Dermis function Temperature regulation: influenced by capillaries and sweat glands here Blood vessel dilation and sweating when body too warm blood vessel constriction when body too cold
Sensory reception detectors mostly in dermis detect heat, cold, touch, pressure, and vibration
Repair and Regeneration Response to repetitive mechanical stress mitosis is stimulated in stratum basale resultin in : Thickening off the epidermis to provide more protection
Regeneration replacement of damaged cells with same cell type restores organ funciton
Fibrosis gap filled with scar tissue composed primarily of collagen produced by fibroblasts functional activities not restoredd if organ too damaged or cells lacks ability
Stage wond healing 1) cut blood vessels bleed into wound 2) Blood clot forms and leukocytes clean wond - clot a temporary barrier for pathogens 3)Blood vessels regrow and granulation tissue forms 4) Epithelium regenerated and connective tissue fibrosis occurs
Wond healing - Not rapid - Longer for wider and deeper surfaces - With severe damages : less likely to return to original condition hair follicles, exocrine glands, nerves, and arrector pili muscle cells not repaired
ASYMMETRY moles that, if ided in half are not the same on both side
Border moles with edges that are jagged like a coastline
Colour Moles gainning or losing colour, or multicoloured
Diameter Moles more than 1/2 cm in diameter(especially if uneven colour)
Evolution Moles that have changed size, shape, colour or risen
Created by: moni77