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Biomed Exam Terms

Exam Terms

Amino acid An organic group possesing both carboxl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
Alpha Globin The poly peptide chain of hemoglobin that is designated aplha.
Beta Globin The poly peptide chain of hemoglobin that is designated beta and that when deficient or defective causes various anemias.
Complication a secondary disease or condition that develops in the course of a primary disease or condition and arises either as a result of it or from independent causes.
hemoglobin an iron containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen.
prognosis the prospect of survival and recovery from a disease as anticipated from the usual course of that disease or indicated by special features of the case.
Protein a three dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
sickle cell deformed red blood cell
symptom subjective evidence of disease or physical disturbance observed by the patient
trait an inherrited characteristic
autosome a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome
chromosome any of the usually linear bodies in the cell nucleus that contain the genetic material.
contagious capable of being transmitted from person to person by contact
dominant trait a genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of the gene associated with the trait.
gene a discrete unit of heriditary information
genetic material molecules responsible for heredity and variation of organisms
heredity the transmission of traits from ancestors to descendant
karyotype a display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by a size and shape
mutation a rare change in the genetic material, ultimately creating genetic diversity
pedigree a diagram of a family tree showing the occurence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations
sex chromosome one of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
recessive trait a condition that appears only in individuals who have recieved two copies of a mutant gene, one copy from each parent
atom the smallest particle of an element that can exist either alone or in combination
calorie the amount of heat energy required to raise temperature, usually used to indicate the energy content of food
chemical bond an attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound
chemical reaction chemical transformation or change; the interaction of chemical entities
compound a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
covalent bond a type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
element the smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
homeostasis the steady state physiological condition of the body
hydrophilic having an affinity for water
ionic bond a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent
nutrient a substance that is needed by the body to maintain life and health
polarity a lack of electrical symmetry in a molecule. charge differences on opposite ends of a structure
solute a substance that is dissolved in a solution
solution a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent the dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versitile known...
Biopsy the removal and examination of tissue, cells, or fluids from the living body.
Erythrocyte a red blood cell
hisotology the study of tissue
leukocyte a white blood cell
plasma the fluid part especially of blood or lymph
platelet a component of mamalian blood that lacks a nucleus and is derived from fragments of megakaryocyte cytoplasm, and that assists in blood clotting, aslo called thrombocyte
tissue an integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
pump a device that raises, transfers, delivers, or compresses fluids or gases especially by suction or pressure or both
fluid mechanics a branch of mechanics dealing with the properties of liquids and gases
positive displacement pump a type of pump that uses positive pressure to move a fluid
bioengineering biological or medical application of engineering principles or engineering equipment
machine a mechanically, electrically, or elctronically operated device performing a task
material science the scientific study of the properties and applications of materials of construction and manufacture
autopsy an examination of the body after death
cell the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently
coroner the presiding officer of a special court, a medical officer, or an officer of law responsible for investigating deaths, particularly those happening under unusual circumstances
documentation the act of creating citations
forensic science the application of scientific knowledge to questions of civil and criminal law
outline a condensation of a subject or argument into its main points
system a collection of components organized to accomplish a specific function or set of functions
tissue an integrated group of cells with common function, structure, or both
aorta the aterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch ateries through the body
aortic valve the semilunar valve separating the aorta from the left ventricle that prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle
artery any of the tubular braching muscular and elastic walled vessels that carry blood form the heart through the body
atrium an anotomical cavity; chamber of the heart that recieves blood from the veins and force it into a ventricle
bicuspid valve a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrim and the left ventricle
histology a branch of anatomy that deals with the minute structure of animal and plant tissues
mitral valve a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle
pericardium the membrane that encloses the heart
superior vena cava a vein that is the second largest vein in the human body and returns to the right attrium of the heart from the upper half of the body
tricuspid valve a valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral valve
valve a body structure that temporarily closes a passage or orifice, or permits movement of fluid in only one direction
diastole the stage of the heart cycle which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood
diastolic pressure BP that remains between heart contractions
EKG a measurement of heart electrical activity
sinoatrial node a small mass of tissue that is made up of purkinje fibers, that mass that sends electrical currents to stimulate heart beat
systole the stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle cfontracts and the chambers pump blood
systolic pressure BP in the ateries during contraction of the ventricles
concentration gradient an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area.
feedback information attained from the results of a process that is used in guiding the way that process is done.
hormone a product of living cells that circulates in blood and produces a specific often stimulatory effect on the activity of cells that are often far from the source of the hormone.
insulin a protein hormone secreated by the pancreas that is essential for the metabolism of carbs and the regulation of glucose levels in the blood.
isotonic having the same solute concetration as another solution.
neg feedback the primary mechanism of homeostasis whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
osmosis the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane form an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
positive feedback feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.
Created by: darius becker