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Science Final Vocab

This is the vocabulary for the 8th grade Science Final

Force A push or pull exerted on an object
Friction The force that two surfaces exert on each other when they rub against each other; the transfer of electrons from one uncharged object to another uncharged object by rubbing.
Weight a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
Speed The distance an object travels per unit of time
Velocity Speed in a given direction
Acceleration the rate at which velocity changes
Sliding Friction Friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another
Rolling Friction Friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface
Static Friction Friction that acts between objects that are not moving
Fluid Friction Friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid
Work Work = Force * distance
Power Power = work/time
Gravitational Potential Energy Gravitational potential energy is energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field.
Kinetic Energy Energy that object has due to its motion
Altitude Elevation above sea level
Weather The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
Atmosphere The relatively thin layer of gases that form Earth's outermost layer
Water vapor water in the form of a gas
Electromagnetic radiation The energy transferred through space by electromagnetic waves
UV rays Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light but longer than X-rays
Infrared Radiation Electromagnetic waves with wavelengths that are longer than visible light but shorter than microwaves
Greenhouse effect The trapping of heat near a planet's surface by certain gases in the planet's atmosphere
Scattering Reflection of light in all directions
Optical Telescope A telescope that uses lenses or mirrors to collect and focus visible light
Nonoptical Telescope A telescope that collects and focuses different types of electromagnetic radiation
Parallax The apparent change in position of an object when seen from different places
Lightyear The distance that light travels in one year, about 9.5 trillion kilometers
Penumbra The part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part
Umbra The darkest part of a shadow
Newton's First Law Inertia; an object in motion will stay in motion, an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside unbalanced force
Newton's Second Law F=ma; the acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is proportional to the magnitude of the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Newton's Third Law for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Thermosphere Top layer of atmosphere; aurora borealis
Mesosphere Second to top layer of atmosphere; Catches meteors
Stratosphere Second to bottom layer of the atmosphere; planes; weather
Troposphere Bottom layer of the atmosphere; we live here
Ionosphere Bottom layer of the Thermosphere
Exosphere Top layer of the Thermosphere.
Mercury Barometer Measures air pressure with a bowl of mercury. Air pressure pushes the mercury down and it rises up a tube with a vacuum at the top.
Aneroid Barometer cylindrical device that measures air pressure and indicates it by moving a needle
EM Spectrum Radio Waves, Microwaves, Infrared Radiation, Visible Light, Ultraviolet Radiation, X-rays, Gamma Rays
What causes wind? a difference in air pressure
Classification of stars Temperature; Composition, Size, Brightness, Color
H-R diagram compares.... Temperature and Brightness
Formation of a star Contracting dust and gas --> Nuclear fission --> Protostar
Lifespan of a star Less mass --> Longer lifespan, and vice versa
Death of a low mass star Star --> Expands to red giant --> outer layers drift away: white dwarf
Death of a high mass star Star --> Supergiant --> explodes to supernova --> can form a neutron star (spinning = pulsar)
Spiral Galaxy Disc shaped; bulge at middle; arms contain dust, gas, stars
Elliptical Galaxy Round; no arms; little gas or dust
Irregular Smaller; young stars; lots of gas and dust; no identifiable shape
Big Bang Theory The universe formed in an instant billions of years ago. It is expanding forever
Hubble's Law Evidence for big bang; Discovered by Edwin Hubble; Farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away
Cosmic Radiation Evidence for big bang; discovered by arno penzias and robert wilson; picked up leftover thermal energy from the big bang
Reasons for the Seasons God; tilt of axis; Earth's revolution around the sun; Parts of earth receive more direct sunlight than others
Created by: camtheman256