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nutrition 1 and 2

chapter 1 and 2 in nutriotion

Nutrition The science of foods and nutrients and other substances they contain and their action on the body
foods products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life
diet the foods and beverages a person eats and drinks
food choices (10) personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage or tradition, social interactions, availability convenience and economy, positive and begative assocations, emotional comfort, values, body weight and image, nutrition and health benefits
functional foods foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
phytochemicals non-nutrient compounds found in plant derived foods that have biological activity in the body
inorganic not containing carbon or pertaining to living things
organic substances or molecules containing carbon, carbon-bonds, or carbon hydrogen bonds
essential nutrients nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them in sufficient quantity
energy-yielding nutrients (3) carbohydrate, fat, protein
calories units by which energy is measured, measured in kilocalories 1000 calories or kcalories
energy the capacity to do work
nutrients chemical substances obtained from food and used int eh body to provide energy, structural materials and supports growth maintenance and repairs the body
energy density a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
vitamins organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
minerals inorganic elements. some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
genome the full complement of genetic material
nutritional genomics the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes
blind experiemtn an experiment in which the subject doesn't know whether they are the control or experimental group.
control group a group of individuals similar in all respect to the experimental group except the medication they are not recieving
correlation a simultaneous increase decrease or change in two variables...if a increases then b also increases.
double blind study when neither individual or experiementer knows who is in which group, control or experiemental
hypothesis an unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationships between two or more variables
peer review a process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to assure that the scientific method was followed
placebo an inert harmeless medication given to provide comfror an dhope
placebo effect a change that occures in reponse to expectations in the effectiveness of a treatment that has no actual medication.
randomization a process of choosing the members of the experiemental and control group without bias
replication repeating an experiment and getting the same result
subjects the people or animals participating in a research project
validity having the quality of being founded on fact or evidence
variables factors that change
dri dietary reference intakes
requirement the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy
ear estimated average requirement
rda recomended dietary allowance
deficent the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected to experience deficeny symptoms
adequate intake the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion.
ul tolerable upper intake level, the most daily amount of a nutrient that one can safely take
eer estimated energy requirement
amdr acceptable macro nutrient distribution ranges
malnutrition any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrientintake
undernutrition deficient evergy or nutrients
overnutrition excess energy or nutrients
nutrition assessment a comprehensive analysis of a persons nutrition status.
nutrition assessment uses... historical information, anthropometirc data, physical examinations, laboratory tests,
overt open and easy to observe
primary deficiency a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
subclinical deficiency a deficiency in the early stages before the outward signs have appeared
chronic diseases diseases characterized by a slow progression and long duration
adequacy providing all the essential nutrients, fiber and energy
balance providing foods in proportion to each other in proportion to the body's needs
kcalorie control management of food energy intake
nutrient density a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides
empty-kcalorie foods foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals
moderation providing enough buyt not too much of a substance
variety eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups
legumes plants of the bean and pea family with sds that are rich in protein compared with other plant derived foods.
exchange lists diet planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat and protein
processed foods foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical, microbiological or sensory proporties
fortified the addition of nutrients that were either not present or present in small amounts to correct a widespread problem.
refined process by which the course parts of a food are removed
enriched the addition to a food of nutrition that were lost during processing
textured vegetable protein processed soybean protein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers
imitation foods foods that substitute for and resemble another foods but are nutritionally inferior
food substitutes foods that are designed to replace other foods
daily values reference values developed by the fda specifically for use on food labels
health claims statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient in a food and a disease.
structure-function cliams statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body
fruits high in nutrient density apples, apricots , avocados, bananas, blueberries, cantaloupe, cherries, grapefuit
fruits low in nutrient density canned or frozen fruit in syrup, juices, punches, fruit drinks with added sugars
veggies high in nutrient density dark green veggies, orange and deep yellow veggies, legumes (black beans, black-eyed peas, garbanzo beans, tofu, split peas), starchy veggies (green peas, lima beans potatoes), artichokes, asparagus, banoo shoots, bean sprouts, beets
veggies low in nutrient density baked beans, candied sweet potatoes, french fries, refried beans
grains high in nutrient density whole grains, enriched bagels breads, pastas pretzels, rice tortillas
grains low in nutrient density biscuits, cakes, cornbread, crackers, croissants, doughnuts
meats high in nutrient density poultry, fish, shellfish, legumes, eggs, lean meat game birds
meats low in nutrient density bacon, bajked beans, fried meat, fish tofu, ground meat
milks high in nutrient density fat free milk and butter milk cheeses, cottages cheese
milks low in nutrient density 1% 2% or whole milk and milk products
oils all good, liquid vegetable oils are good and olive avocado oils are also good
Created by: boone.reavis