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Ancient Rome Vocab

Ancient Rome - Mr. B's Vocabulary Stack #190878

QuestionAnswer
tribune one of ten elected officials in the Roman republic/ elected from plebeian class/job was to protect interests and rights of plebeians in meetings of Senate / had veto power
plebeian lower class of Roman citizen
patrician upper class of Roman citizen - came from founding families of Rome
consul 2 served at a time for one year / could veto each other / passed laws made by assembly & Senate / patrician class
Laws of the Twelve Tablets (Tables) Roman laws written on these so that all could know their rights and responsibilities
Roman assembly part of gov't of Roman republic in which all male citizens could meet and vote / had little actual power
Roman Senate Body made up of representatives from 300 patrician families / governed military affairs and foreign territories / made gov't budget / advised consuls / in office for life
veto literally "I forbid" - the power to say no to a law / held by consuls over each other and by tribunes over the Senate
republic a government in which people elect officials to represent them
dictator government official with greatest power / chosen only in time of emergency (war that threatened Rome) / had absolute power / served max 6 months or until emergency over
Etruscans tribe from northern Italy / conquered Romans around 600 BC / traded with Greeks and shared Greek ideas with Romans / last king of Rome, Tarquinus, was Etruscan - kicked out 509 BC
Romulus and Remus twin bros founded Rome / Romulus first king of Rome after killing Remus/According to Roman mythology, they were raised by a she-wolf
Pax Romana The "Roman Peace" - 200 years of peace that began under the reign of Augustus Caesar
emperor a king who rules over conquered territory
Julius Caesar 1. Roman general who ruled Rome with Crassus and Pompey as a member of the Triumvirate 2. His Roman legions conquered Gaul 3. Challenged the Roman Senate by "crossing the Rubicon" river and marching on Rome 4. Named himself dictator for life
Julius Caesar 5. Assassinated by Senators in the Forum during the Ides of March, in 44 BC
Augustus Caesar 1. adopted son (grandnephew) of Julius 2. took control of Rome after long political struggle and chaos after assassination 3. As Emperor, he established Pax Romana / brought prosperity to Empire
Pompeii Roman city in southern Italy destroyed by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 AD
Herculaneum Roman city on opposite side of Mt. Vesuvius also destroyed by eruption in 79 AD
Marcus Aurelius Known as the "Last of the Five Good Emperors". Generally tolerant and promoter of humanitarian causes.
Trajan Emperor best known for his extensive public building program which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column, celebrating his victorious campaign over the Dacians.
Hadrian Emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138. Considered one of Rome's greatest emperors; unified the empire; Bulit the Pantheon, and Hadrian's Wall across northern Britain.
Nero Emperor from AD 37 to 68. known for his mistreatment of Christians. Thought to be insane. "Fiddled" while Rome burned.
Tiberius Emperor who was was one of Rome's greatest generals, but remembered for his cruelty.
Caligula Roman Emperor from 37 to 41AD. Name means "little soldier's boots". Known for his cruelty, and for constructing 2 of Rome's largest aqueducts. He was assassinated by teh Praetorian Guard.
Constantine Roman Emperor who adopted Christianity. He moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople.
Hannibal Carthaginian general who invaded Italy and defeated several Roman armies. Led his war elephants across the Alps.
Carthage (Carthaginians) Ancient city-state on the northern coast of Africa (present day Tunisia). Fought three Punic Wars against Rome and eventually defeated.
Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 to 146 BC for control of the rich Mediterranean trade.
Gaul A region inhabited by the ancient Gauls, a Celtic tribe, now present-day France, parts of Belgium, Germany and Italy. Caesar finally conquered the Gauls during the Gallic Wars in the 50's BC.
Vercengetorix King of the Gauls
Romulus & Remus According to Roman mythology, these twin brothers, raised by a she-wolf founded Rome.
Attila the Hun King of the Huns (barbaric tribe of fierce horsemen from Central Asia).
Pompey Pompey or Pompey the Great was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic, a member of the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Caesar, who defeated him in a civil war.
Crassus Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who formed the First Triumvirate with pompey and Julius Caesar.
Cleopatra was the a queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the last pharoah of Egypt. She had a child by Caesar, and after his death, allied with Marc Antony but was defeated by Rome. She committed suicide with an asp (poisonous snake)
Roman Legion A Roman legion was an infantry unit consisting of heavily armed soldiers, equiped with shields, armor, helmets, spears and swords. In the early republic, the strength of a legion was about 3,000 men; 4,800 legionaries in the days of Julius Caesar.
Praetorian Guard Roman Legionnaires who were the Emperor's personal bodyguard. They wore purple capes.
Centurion A centurion was a professional officer of the Roman army. Most centurions commanded 83 men despite the commonly assumed 100, but senior centurions commanded cohorts, or took senior staff roles in their legion.
"Crossing the Rubicon" The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" means to pass a point of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's crossing of the river in 49 BC, which was considered an act of war. The Rubicon is a shallow river in northeastern Italy
assassinate to murder for political reasons
"Et tu Brute?" Translation - "Even you Brutus?" from Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar"
Scipio Africanus Roman general who conquered Carthage
Pax Romana The period of Roman Peace durign the rule of Augustus Caesar
Appian Way The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
aqueduct a structure that carries water over a long distance.
Colosseum a large amphitheatre built in Rome around 70AD, site of contests and combats between people, and animals.
Pantheon The Pantheon, famous temple to all the gods built by Emperor Hadrian of Ancient Rome, in about 126 AD. The building is circular with a unique concrete dome, with an "oculus" or opening in the ceiling. Still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome
oculus Latin meaning "eye"; the opening at the top of the dome of the Pantheon, allowing light and air into the center of the structure
gladiators in Ancient Rome, a person who fought to the death in an arean for the entertainment of the Roman public; usually a slave. There were many types of gladiators.
Circus Maximus The Circus Maximus (Latin for great or large circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium; The Circus Maximus was the largest stadium in ancient Rome; seating 250.000 people, one quarter of Rome's population.
cuniculus water channels created by the Etruscans by digging holes perpendicular to the flow of underground streams used for irrigation
veto the Latin word for "forbid"; Roman rulers could veto laws made by the Roman Senate
Roman Forum A small open rectangle surrounded by the ruins of ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. It was for centuries the center of Roman public life.
Palatine Hills The Palatine Hill is one of the seven hills of Rome. It is probably the site of some of the first settlements, known for its ruins of ancient imperial palaces.
fasces The fasces were a symbol of authority; a bundle of rods or sticks with an axe head sticking out of the middle.
S.P.Q.R. The abbreviation SPQR is Latin (Senatus Populusque Romanus), which means, in English, the Senate and the Roman people.
republic a type of government in which citizens who have the right to vote select their leaders; elected leaders rule in the name of the people
mercenary a foreign soldier who serves in teh army only for pay
Tiber River Major river in Italy; Rome is built on its banks.
Baths of Caracalla Built by Emperor Caracalla, they were the largest thermae (heated baths)in the world when completed in 217AD, covering 27 acres and could serve 1600 citizens of all classes. They were functional for over 300 years.
Londinium Roman town built on the Thames River in Britain, which became London, England
Tyrrhenian Sea sea to the west of Italian Peninsula
Adriatic Sea sea to the northeast of Italian Peninsula
Alps mountain range that forms the northwest border between Italy, France, Switzerland, and Austria
Apennine Mountains mountain range that runs north-south through Italian Peninsula
dictator a person in teh ancient Roman Republic appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency, with all teh powers of a king. Ex: Julius Caesar
Christianity the Christian religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus and the New Testament of the Christian holy book, the Bible.
martyr someone willing to sacrifice their life for their beliefs
epistle a letter; in the Christian Bible, letterswritten by disciples like Paul to early Christian groups
toga a distinctive wool garment of Ancient Rome, a cloth about twenty feet in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic. After the 2nd century BC, the toga was a garment worn exclusively by men.
Celts The Celts were a group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia (Spain)
Britain Island of Britain, home of the Celts
Helvetia modern day Switzerland
inflation an economic situation in which there is more money of less value, characterized by high prices
denarii Roman coins (currency) 1. an ancient Roman silver coin, the penny of the New Testament 2. Later, an ancient Roman gold coin, worth 25 silver denarii
Visigoths barbarians from Eurasia- the Western Goths
Ostrogoths barbarians from Eurasia- the Eastern Goths
Vandals A Germanic tribe of barbarians who invaded Rome and were known as fierce sea raiders. The word "vandal" and "vandalism" comes from their reputation for destroying property.
Latin Roman language derived from Greek and Phoenician alphabets
Roman cohort a unit of soldiers within a Roman Legion; One (1) Legion = 10 cohorts; one (1) cohort = 6 centuries (100 men each)
Spartacus slave who escaped and started an uprising against Rome. He was eventually captured and crucified.
Cicero the greatest and best-known Roman orator (public speaker) and the author of many famous speeches; also famous as a philosopher and politician
Triumvirate Alliance of three (3) consuls (Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey) who ruled the Roman Republic from 59BC until Crassus' death in 53BC.
Roman Empire Lasted from 27 BC to 576 AD whose boundaries changed over time, but at its greatest extent stretched from Britain in the West to North Africa in the South, and the Persian Gulf in the East.
catacombs underground cemetery of may tunnels and passageways beneath Rome. Early Christians hid, liverd and worshipped in the catacombs
scutum Roman curved shield that covered a soldier from neck to feet
gladius double-edged roman short sword
pilum roman throwing javelin
Lorica Segmentata The lōrīca segmentāta (segmented plates) was a type of laminated armor (metal strips layered & fashioned into circular bands) that protected the torso and shoulders
miliarium Roman milestones widely used by Roman road builders;an important part of any Roman road network: The first Roman milestones appeared on the Appian Way. At the centre of Rome, the "Golden Milestone" was erected to mark the presumed center of the Empire.
catapult Device used to throw or hurl a projectile a great distance without explosives—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines. The word 'catapult' comes from the Latin 'catapulta', meaning "downwards" "to toss, to hurl"
ballista large crossbow-type weapon that fired large metal bolts or round stone balls
decimate Term derived from the Roman Army's harsh punishment for mutiny or cowardice, where every 10th man (decimal)was executed.
galea Roman steel helmet with protective face and neck guards. Officers wore colored horse hair plumes to distinguish them in battle
Caesar's Bridge Mile-long wooden bridge constructed in just 3 days across the Rhine River by caesar's legions to demonstrate the power of rome to the barbarian Germanic tribes.
Date: March 15th, 44 B.C. Caesar is assassinated by Brutus and other roman Senators in the forum. Hence the saying "Beware the Ides of March!"
date: 476 A.D. The Fall of the Roman Empire in the West
Date: 79 A.D. Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum
keystone arch Roman enginnering innovation that provided more strength, saved time and building materials, and allowed construction of much taller buildings and aqueducts
concrete Romans invented a unique and very durable mortar that mixed limestone with volcanic ash (pozzilana)that could even harden underwater.
Vespasian Emperor who completedthe construction of the Colosseum (Coliseum). Built by 10,000 Jewish slaves brought to Rome after their revolt against the Romans was crushed and Jerusalem destroyed.
vaulted ceiling Roman innovation using overlapping arches to create a tunnel or domed opening
schism Meaning to rip or split apart. The Roman empire was divided into Western (Rome) and Eastern (Constantinople)empires by Emperor Constantine.
Alaric King of the Visigoths
Seneca, Virgil, Livy Famous Roman writers and historians
Pliny Roman general who's writings provide a first-hand description of the destuction of Pompeii
groma device used by Roman engineers to sight lines and distance for building roads, aqueducts, etc. Consisted of a pole with crossed rods at a 90 degree angle balanced on the top, with lead weights dangling from the end of each rod.
Created by: bottleguy on 2009-01-04



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