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7th Science

Effie Subardoe- Chapter 9

Cold-blooded Regulate their temperature by external means
Fish Aquatic vertebrates possessing gills, fins, and scales
Ichthyologists Scientists who study fish
Fish have glands in their skin that secrete a protective layer of slimy ______ to reduce _____. mucus,drag
Lobe-finned fish Have webbed rays attached to the body by a lobe- a single bone surrounded by muscle; Lungfish and coelacanths
Fins Distinguish fish from other vertebrae
Name the two groups bony fish are divided into. Ray-finned fish, lobe-finned fish
Caudal fin Sticks out from the fish's tail and is used as a propeller
The dorsal and anal fins stabilize the fish while __________. swimming
Dorsal fin(s) The prominent fin on the top of the fish
Anal fin The fin behind the pelvic fin
Pelvic fins Located below the pectoral fins on the fish's underside; act as rudders, paddles, and brakes
Pectoral fins Located on the sides of the fish beteen the gills
Rays (spines) Thin rods of bone or cartilage
Ray-finned fish Include most bony fish, posses fins made of webs of skin supported by rays or spines
Scales Bony overlapping plates that protrude from the fish's skin
What are the four basic scale shapes? 1. Placoid- tethe shaped 2. Ganoid- diamond shaped 3. Cycloid- round 4. Ctendoid- also round
Myomeres The W shaped bands in a fish's body
Gills Fish uses these to extract oxygen from the water
Each gill is made of an arch from which two rows of long, narrow ___ _________ branch. gill filaments
As the fish takes in water through its mount, the water is filtered by the gill filaments before exiting the ____ _____. gill slits
Operculum hard, movable plate that protects and cover all the dilicate respiratory anatomy
Fish have a ____-_________ heart with one ______ and one _________. two-chambered, atrium, ventricle
In most fish, the mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach make a _______ ______ so that the prey can be swallowed ______. straight line, whole
Fry Young fish
Livebearers Fish that give birth to live young
Swim bladder A large gas-filled organ located high in the fish's body that allows the fish to stay suspended in any debth of water
What are the two ways fish produce light? A light producing organ called the photophore or from bacteria that is bioluminescent [capable of glowing]
Electric organs Some fish use this to generate electricity
Lateral line A system of nerve endings that extend over the fish's head and sides, a;llowing the fish to sense vibration and preassur changes
Spawning To lay large quantities of eggs in the water.
Anus Where solid wastes are removed from the fish
Gas glands Introduce a heavy gas (carbon dioxide) into the bladder to pressurize it so it does not collapse; this allows the fish to float at its new depth
Roe Eggs
Milt A fluid that contains the sperm that a male fish releases when he swims over the roe
Sharks Chondrichthians with a body design similar to bony fish
What are the differences between sharks and fish? Sharks lack a swim bladder, have more complex reproductive systems, and have gill slits without operculums
Denticles Placoid scales that sharks are covered with; they do not overlap like most fish scales do
Spiracles Paired holes for inhalation that a shark has behind their eyes
Batoids Cartilaginous fish with flattened bodies
What does the Batoid order include? True rays, electric rays, skates, and sawfish
What are the "big three" attacking sharks? The great white, the bull, and the tiger shark.
Pups Shark young
Mermaid's purse A rigid capsule that has long tendrils coming off the ends
Neutrally buoyant To neither rise or sink but remain at the current depth; Sharks can almost accomplish this
Great White Shark The biggest carnivorous fish
Eye shine Caused when an animal has reflective plates lining its eyes
True rays Have broad bodies and generally have long, whip-like tails
Stingray A true ray that is non aggressive
Skates Non-venomous batoids with long noses
Electric ray [torpedo] It kills its prey with electric charges generated by special organs located behind each eye
Rostrum A sawfish nose
Sawfish A cartilaginous fish that looks like a shark but behaves like a ray
Chimeras Bottom dwellers that are found in temperate ocean water
What are the three families within the Chimeras? Short-nosed, long nosed, and plow-nosed chimeras
Short-nosed Chimaras [ratfish] Found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans
Plow-nosed chimeras [elephant fish] Found in the water surrounding New Zealand, Australia, Southern Africa, and South America
Long-nosed chimeras [spookfish] Not much is known about them because the inhabit the deepest water
Class Cycostomata Hagfish and Lampreys
Hagfish and lampreys Cartilaginous fish with and eel-like appearance; lack jaws, bones, scales, and fins but have pore-like gill openings
Slime glands Hagfish possess these; excrete slime making the hagfish hard to hold, able to suffocate prey,ward off predators, and line burrow walls
Reptiles Coldblooded bertebrates that include lexards, crocodilians, snakes, turtles, and tuataras
Herpetologists The scientists who study reptiles and amphibians
Keratinized To harden like keratin
Amnion A special protective layer that protects eggs
Lizards The most numerous reptiles; diverse and found on every climate
Gecko The smallest lizard? (not positive on that one...)
The Komodo dragon The largest lizard
Chromatophores Cells located beneath the skin that allow some lizards to change colors
Regenerate To grow back
Gila monsters One of the two venomous lizards [the other one is the Mexican beaded lizard]
Geckos The family that is one of the most familiar lizard groups; They are highly vocal, nocturnal insectivores
Spectacle Lizards have this immovable, transparent eye
Iguanids A herbivorous lizard group found throughout North and South America composed of iguanas and other similar species
Dewlaps Ornamental grests frills and throat fans
Anoles Common lizards
Marine iguana The only lizard to have a truly equatic life style
Chameleans Arboreal lizards found primarily in Africa and Madagascar
Skinks Lizards with elongated bodies covered in smalll, overlapping scales
Snakes Legless reptiles with a unique body design
What are the four way snakes move? Lateral undulation, concertina movement, sidewinding movement, and rectinlinear movement
Lateral undulation One way snakes move; accomplished by the snake following an S shape and exerting force against surface irrugualraites
Rectilinear movement The snake alternately stretches and shortens its body segments all; The belly will be in the air and then he will flatten out repeatedly
Concertina movement The snakes acts like an accordian
Sidewinding movement When the snake moves the innerpacrt of its body whcih allows him to slither on sandy surfaces
Molt To shed skin
Jacobson's organ A cavity that allows the snake to ssmell
To consume the large meals that snakes catch, they were given a set of ________-_________ jaws. Double-hinged
Clutches Snake litters
Venom A poisonus liquid containg enxymes and chemicals that destroy portions of the body
Fangs Grooved teeth designed to inject venom in their victim
Memotoxic venom Works more slowly that Neurotoxin venom; Makes the victims's red blood cellsin the circulatroy system to burst
Neurotoxic venom Attacks the nervous system, causing blindness and paralyzing the diaghragm so that the victim suffocates
Antivenin Medicine designed to counteract snake venom
Constrictors Slow-moving snaks that coil around their prey and squeeze [constrict] until they die
Name two constrictor snakes. The boa and the python
Pythons are one of the few snakes that _______ their eggs. brood
Boas are generally found in the ____ _______. New World
Coulubrids The largest group of snakes
Blind snakes The world's smallest snakes; burrow through the ground by pushing through the dirt with their hardened skull
What are the two common families of poisonous snakes? Vipers and elapids
Kraits The Asian elapids that have huge venom glands that can be 1/3 the length of their body
Sea snakes A group of marine elapids found in Asia and the Pacific Ocean
Coral snake The common elapids belong to this family
The viper family is divided into two groups: the _____ ____ ______ and the ____ ______. Old World vipers, pit vipers
Pit organ A special depression on the front of their head between their eyes and nostrils; detect temperature changes and allow the snake to locate warm bodies in the dark
Turtles The only reptiles with shells`
Plastron What the turtle's shell is made with; covers the abdomen and an upper carapace
Carapace Covers the back of the turtle
Scutes The "squares" on a turtles shell
Marine turtles Have paddle-like limbs and rarely come on land except to lay eggs
Snapping turtles Common fresh-water turtles found throughout the Americas
Tortoise Turtles that only live on land and have elephant-like feet
Crocodilians Include crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gavials; the largest living reptiles
Crocodiles Swift and aggressive predators
Alligators and caimans are ___ __________ and ____ ________ to humans and animals that crocodiles are. less aggressive, less dangerous
Gavials are found only in _____ and ______. India and Burma
Tuataras Nocturnal, lizard-like animals that are classified by themselves
Parietal eye A third eye tuataras have located on the top of their skull
Sir Richard Owen Coined dinosaurs their name; Dinosaurs means "terrible lizard"
Therapods Carnivorous dinosaurs that walked on two legs
Sauropods Large herbivorous animals that have elephantine leggs and leaf shaped teeth
Pterosaurs Dinosaurs that have a similar body structure to bats
Pliosaurs and plesiosaurs Giant dinosaurs that were of the see with paddle shaped feet and legs
Amphibians Cold-blooded, four-legged vertebrates that are mostly terrestrial but live near water and spend an important part of their life cycle in it
Tetrapods Four legged animals
Metamporphosis The changing of an immature hatchling which does not resemble its parents into and adult which looks like others of that species
Salamanders Found worldwide in moisture-rich temperate and tropical regions
What three categories are Salamanders devided into based on there reproduction? 1. Wholly terrestrial- Live on land and lay their clutches in batches of 20-30 eggs on land 2. Wholly aquatic- Lay clutches of up to 5000 eggs in the water 3. Newts
Newts Amphibious-Live on land but return to the water in batches of 100-400 eggs
Efts The larvae metamorphose into juveniles
Sirens A unique group of Salamanders that live in shallow water as active predators
Estivation A type of dormancy
Frogs and toads Amphibians with strong bodies connected to the head without a neck
Amurans The group frogs and toads belong to
Tadpoles The larvea of frogs and toads
A miniature frog adult Froglet or toadlet
Caecilians Amphibians that are long bodied and limbless; looks like worms and snakes
Why are caecilians not classified with worms or snakes? They are not classified with worms because they have vertebrae and are not classified with snakes because they lack scales
Annuli Folds or rings in the caecilians's body
Dermatophagy Process in which the mothers grows a fatty layer of skin every three days for the young to consume
Created by: nelsonclan